Research article
Issue: № 3 (7), 2016


The paper analyses the content of productively focused foreign language training in high school. Productive foreign language education in modern conditions is one of the priority directions in development of the theory and practice of foreign language training. Productive organization of foreign language teaching allows optimizing students’ self-learning activities, to actualize the development of personal potential of students and orient a holistic educational process on the final aggregate result of foreign language training. Presented theoretical analysis allowed determining the productive linguodidactic technology as the core component of the approach to productive foreign language education. This paper describes basic organizational and functional aspects of modular technology of productive linguistic reading as one of the key components of productive linguodidactic technology system. Training modules systems presented in the paper provide productive organization of the students’ independent foreign language learning and effectively develop their linguistic competence.

The reform of higher education in Russia is accompanied by a number of problems the solution of which requires revision of outdated and traditional forms of training, search and development of effective methods and innovative teaching techniques accordingly. The latter ones, on the one hand, should be based on standard requirements of the Federal State, while on the other hand they should take into account international standards in education in order to prepare professionals in the field of foreign language who would be able to compete at the labour market.

Therefore, there is a need to revise conceptual foundations of foreign language teaching, which will allow us to solve the tasks multidimensionally and provide students with a quality learning process aimed at the formation of key and special professional competence. A good alternative to the old concepts is the so-called “productive approach” which is an innovative methodological basis in foreign language education [1]. The development of the methodology of this approach is connected with the need to solve a number of theoretical and methodological problems ensuring the efficiency and integrity of the educational process related to foreign languages in high school [2].

According to our observations and practical developments in this field, the application of the productive approach in foreign language teaching (FL) in higher education helps students to generate their own (personal) foreign-language speech product, which is a subjective and new intellectual educational outcome that has practical value for education in general and for self-education in particular. It must be emphasized that a student uses the instructor's help from time to time, but acquires linguistic knowledge and develops appropriate competences independently.

The creativity a student manifests while doing so (showing his/her ability to create new speech products) is a goal-setting characteristic for the future specialist and is not simply “an activity” – it is a kind of mechanism for the development of a personality, which is accompanied by internal personality changes in psyche – spontaneity, uncontrolled will and reason, variability in states of consciousness [3]. Acquired knowledge becomes a personal achievement of a student while reflection, being the basis of self-awareness, self-regulation and self-actualization, provides personal self-development.

Productive foreign-language education as a creatively-oriented foreign language acquisition process ensures self-determination and self-development of the student's personality, the ability to design the model of student’s own foreign language education. This corresponds to the definition of productive education as efficient organization of the subsequent formation of personal and social activities, determining the search, creative and transformative nature of academic knowledge, during which a person acquires life experience as a subjectively new product [4].

Based on the foregoing, it must be assumed that productive approach to learning FL can be the basis for the organization of effective foreign language education at the university.

In our understanding the modernization of education initially implies the development of scientific and pedagogical ideas concerning the increase of productivity in educational process at various levels of education, in the first place guiding them towards the development of necessary properties and qualities of the learner's personality, and secondly – towards the development of effective technologies of adequate management of the education process in general. That is why, new state standards take into account the idea of independence of students, the orientation of the educational process “towards the result” obtained in the course of creative self-fulfillment [5].

We can confidently assert that new educational forms, methods, tools and technologies covered by modern educational standards, should be subjected to certain modifications in order to develop students' skills of working with large flows of information, orientation towards information and activity approach in learning and independent creative work. Accordingly, the quality or efficiency of the organization of education systems depends largely on the development of personal qualities of FL learners [6].

In this regard, it should be noted that teacher is responsible for the organization and implementation of training activities, which should ensure the socialization of an individual, meanwhile his/her self-determination and self-development increase significantly. Acquisition of productive ways of practical and intellectual activities by learners should become the main aim in modern foreign language education. Productivity of the educational process in this case will be provided by the development of independent informative activities of FL students. Therefore, the main tasks of development and modernization of the modern foreign language education refers to targeted training of FL students to help them adjust to initiative, independent learning and cognitive activity, objective critical reflection and self-education throughout their lives. That is why the need to implement appropriate linguodidactic technologies which allows providing high-quality foreign language training of the graduates has become one of the strategic objectives of education [7].

As a part of a productive approach, we have developed a system of linguodidactic productive technologies, which include modular technology of productive linguistic reading, aimed at the intensification of independent reading among students who study a foreign language and the formation of the linguistic competence of the student. Productive linguistic reading is a kind of independent work on the studied language and involves conscious focus of the reader's attention on the linguistic form – this way vocabulary is enriched by reading.

Analysis of linguistic resources in the process of productive linguistic reading is primarily connected with lexical and stylistic levels of the text aimed at determining at the expense of which language means the author reaches the expression of his/her communicative intention, solves communicative problems, etc. Implementation of this type of educational activity does not only promote a better understanding of the text, but also better understanding of the author's style in general.

At the lexical level of the text the main object of the student's analysis is mostly unfamiliar vocabulary, lexical units found in contextual meaning, specific author's turns of speech. Here it is advisable to talk about such kinds of learning activities as the use of dictionaries, paraphrasing, interpretation of the significance and meaning of the text, as well as the study of familiar lexical units occurring in a new context, the use of which is conditioned by communicative situation, usage particularities, communicative tasks and others. In the process of productive linguistic reading a student learns to determine the relationship between language and realized semantic tasks.

Determination of stylistic features of the text is associated with the analysis of expressive means, impact, and artistic value, reflected in the sentence (phrases) and in larger semantic pieces. This includes emotional and evaluative tools, a variety of stylistic devices, author's expressive means and others. The aim of stylistic analysis of the text is to understand the feelings and attitudes of characters, penetration into the author's intention, etc., which results in the interpretation of the values and meaning of the text in terms of ideas, the author's intention and interpretation and in the interpretation of relevant language means.

This deep, conscious perception of certain linguistic phenomena allows the learner to create necessary linguistic picture of the target language and culture. Therefore, this kind of reading can be seen as a manifestation of productive work on the studied language. This attitude to the study of FL is an important quality of a learner and is an indicator of the level of linguistic competence formation.

In addition, this modular technology of productive linguistic reading in FL is one of the strategic tools for the development of goal-setting skills, as it is based on the construction of individual learning pathway of each individual student. This way the student is already at the stage of familiarization with the text, its general character and situational prerequisites which produces certain personal attitudes and expectations resulting from work with this linguistic material. It also produces the analysis and forecasting of the use of information contained in the text. As a result, student pose certain educational tasks aimed at meaningful, conscious perception and interpretation of the text and foreign language speech material contained in it.

Designing an individual educational trajectory for an FL learner is also a psychological and didactic mechanism of influence for the development of activity-important qualities of the student's personality through the form of educational activity, which ensures self-determination and self-development of a personality in the whole educational process.

At the same time, teacher is responsible for modeling of an individual educational trajectory and “triggers” the mechanism of influencing the personality of a student. Important is the fact that in the field of FL, teacher is a certain standard of verbal behavior, a reference for an FL learner, which also determines the mechanism of development of productive activities of a foreign language learner. An important aspect of teacher's role is that he is a subject of mutual reflection, evaluation of the process and the product of training activity, a kind of a “mirror” for the reflective self-esteem of a learner.

During the implementation of the above described learning technology student develops the ability to set intermediate goals and learning objectives of mastering different aspects of the studied language in collaboration with the teacher and in a self-conscious way, to determine appropriate final speech product, to correctly assess necessary text materials, to choose rational ways of learning activities in accordance with personal meaning in FL study.

In other words, student's attitude that runs as follows, is developed – “I am a teacher”. Student is able to independently, or with the assistance of a teacher, identify and evaluate his/her real needs in the study of FL in general and of its specific aspects in particular, to carry out a kind of personal analysis and assessment of the needs. In this case, students realize the mechanism of language functioning in real communication and the mechanism of its development. The latter, as a rule, is connected with students' typical mistakes and typical difficulties that arise, the assessment of their abilities in the study of FL.

In this sense, it should also be noted that in the learning process, orientation of the student towards the result (in this case – mastering and using FL) is largely formed under the influence of monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, in order to form goal-setting skills of the learner it is also important to be aware of the criteria for the evaluation of language skills formation, communication skills and overall proficiency in the use and success of LF [8].

Usually, as a matter of practice, these parameters are set outside the learning situation – by means of teaching or textbook. Therefore, when teaching productive linguistic reading in FL a teacher and a student must agree upon and share responsibilities for setting training objectives, and if possible, it should become more of a student's responsibility. This way (s)he is put in real conditions of an independent, free and responsible choice.

We emphasize that goal setting is in its nature based on the mechanism of self-reflexive evaluation. Therefore, the techniques used for the development of goal-setting skills are essentially reflective-evaluative. In order to develop these skills one can use the following instructional techniques, transferred to the personality-oriented pedagogical process from social psychology: a survey, rating estimation, method of “negotiations”, communicative games, etc. These techniques can be used in the process of productive linguistic reading teaching in FL, both individually, in a group discussion and in advisory teacher support [9].

So, taking into account all of the above, and based on our practical experience, we highlight the following abilities, mastering which ensures successful formation of linguistic competences:

  • advanced linguistic analysis of foreign language linguistic means provided in the text;
  • stylistic and linguistic interpretation of foreign language means in terms of character description, revealing the intention of the text, the point of view of the author etc.;
  • understanding implications, orientation in the structure of the text, etc;
  • analyzing and commenting on events, facts, behaviors, characters, etc;
  • the use of productive techniques and methods of organization and interpretation of foreign language speech;
  • the creation of personal speech product in foreign language;
  • productive search and accumulation of foreign-language linguistic means based on a specific characteristic: synonymy (compilation of series of synonymous language means), certain communicative intention, qualitative description of a character, etc. (when creating logical value chain of the text according to semantic relationships, etc.);
  • goal-setting and self-analysis of progress concerning foreign language knowledge.

The system of training modules applied in educational process includes four main modules of productive linguistic reading teaching in FL. Training modules presented below show the classification of learning activities used in FL teaching, which can be expanded and supplemented, if necessary.

Educational purpose of the first training module “Organizing Activities in Productive Linguistic Analyzing” is the development of the productive capacity of a student to use productive techniques in FL teaching and organization of foreign language speech production (table 1).


Table 1

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Educational goal of the second training module “Providing Activities in Productive Linguistic Analyzing” is the development of skills of productive speech compensation while creating personal foreign language speech product, skills of productive development of new foreign-language speech means and skills of correct use of available foreign-language speech means in the context of a particular speech situation (Table 2).

Table 2

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Educational purpose of the third training module “Specific Practical Activities in Productive Linguistic Analyzing” (table 3) is the activation and development of cognitive thinking activity of learners and productive foreign language educational activities.

Table 3

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The fourth training module “Linguistic Cognitive Test” is a control and evaluation module which contains learning objectives and which helps to check the level of linguistic competence formation and self-education competence of students. These problems correspond to the problems presented in the training modules.

Based on the above analysis of the factors of implementation of the technology of modular productive linguistic reading training of FL we associate it with the following main characteristics:

  • realization of cognitive and value aspects in FL learning;
  • focus on the development of a productive approach to FL study;
  • raising responsibility for personal choice of means and methods of FL study;
  • actualization of affective (empathic) component of productive foreign-language education activities;
  • creation of real conditions for self-determination and self-development of the student;
  • ensuring sustained motivation, self-motivation and the development of productive thinking in the study of FL;
  • modeling of a personally significant context of FL use for a student, where the process of FL learning is included in the creation of personal foreign language speech product;
  • orientation of the productive task towards “searching” (“exploring language and culture”), in particular through the use of the problematic nature of language and text as a product of verbal communication;
  • creation of real conditions for creative cognitive activity;
  • reliance on self-esteem and self-regulation of reflective learning activities;
  • inclusion in collaboration and co-creation of all subjects of educational activity (student – teacher – training group);
  • focus on the development of linguistic competence and self-education competence of students.


Conclusion. The problem of the effectiveness of foreign language training in higher education can be solved by means of productivity-oriented learning organization in FL. Modular training technology in productive linguistic reading in FL is a significant component of productive foreign language education, which is aimed at the actualization of self-educational activity among students and provides an effective formation of linguistic competence and implementation of developing and educating foreign language education in high school.


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