Research article
Issue: № 3 (3), 2015


The text analyzes communication strategies present in V. Putin's speeches, as well as ways of their implementation.

Language is very powerful. Thanks to language, people have the opportunity to exchange ideas and information concerning various walks of life: culture, science and politics. It is clear that in communication, to achieve various goals, a large quantity of means of communication are used in certain communicative situations: words, phrases and especially voice, gestures, facial expressions and body movement.

Political communication differs a great deal from usual interpersonal communication. The purpose and the message to the recipient changes which has an effect on the form of the narrative. Speech is primarily a means of acquiring and maintaining the authority of power. Words and gestures in the language of power lose their basic meaning. In order to achieve their goals, politicians often use manipulation and suasion.

Among the most important political speeches are statements from heads of state. A speech from the President of a country not only affects the creation of a positive image of the country in the minds of citizens and increases their sense of security and stabilization, but also has an impact on the strengthening of the state's position in the international arena.

A particular type of speech is a political statement. The ability to influence public opinion with the help of public speaking has always been a great mystery and a great art. In order to fully understand the mechanism of political speech, those taking part in a master class at the Y.V. Gromyko Higher School of Economics analyzed the speeches of different politicians in different countries in different historical eras. They were the speeches of US President Abraham Lincoln (at the opening of the memorial cemetery at Gettysburg in 1863), President Putin of the Russian Federation (an address to the Federal Assembly in 2002) and the speech of US Presidential candidate Lyndon LaRouche (at a conference in Germany in 2003). The analysis of all these speeches led to the following conclusions:

  • The text of political speech has considerable power if it contains a reference to a real-life situation.
  • The subject of political action is closely linked with the form of speech in which they conducted.
  • The form of political speech is determined by to whom it is intended or directed and its purpose.
  • It is possible to assess political action from the point of view of the feasibility of action [5].

Success or failure in elections to a large extent depends on the verbal behavior of the political elite. Choosing a strategy of verbal behavior depends on the goals which the politician wishes to achieve by using their speech. The main goals are:

  • Convince the target audience of the validity of their judgments so that they will vote for a certain candidate, party or bloc, by presenting convincing arguments or through defamation of a political opponent in the eyes of voters.
  • Earn a reputation or strengthen their image.
  • Convince the target audience to agree with the speaker and their opinions and accept their point of view.
  • Create a certain emotional mood and trigger a certain attitude of the target audience.
  • Impart knowledge to the target audience and inform them.

It is necessary to consider the sociological factors that affect the culture of speech of the modern political elite of Russia. Russian voters are not very susceptible to speeches. They want a politician talking to them using clear language in which they communicate daily, without dressing it up. Voters are accustomed not to trust the words of politicians. It is obvious to them that the speaker says one thing, implies another and thinks a third. For example: Alexander Lebed said things such as: “двум пернатым в одной берлоге не ужиться” [7, p. 24], although they are a long way from examples of eloquence, they still increased popularity among the electorate. As evident from that issue, Russia is quite different from the West.

Speech always plays a big role for maintaining or gaining the authority of power of its representatives and transmitters. A low level of speech culture of a politician can lead to a decrease not only in their authority among the electorate, but also in the authority of the power they represent.

Western politicians pay a great deal of attention to their speeches and spend a lot of time preparing to speak properly and speak well in public. Soviet practice of preparing written texts and reading them on a piece of paper has led to a lot of people in the world of politics, economics and culture to forget about eloquence and the art of oration. New living conditions in modern times in Russia have led to the leadership of the country of educated people who can speak well and speak in public, but at regional level there are still many people who are unprepared for new conditions.

We must remember that speech is the identity of not only the person, but also the organisation, the party and the country which this person represents. Speech plays its part as one of the most important components in the creation of the image of a court, statesman or politician. It is important not only for the elementary culture of speech but also for its rhetoric skill [1].

Each politician has their own style of speech which manifests itself in their words, pronunciation, energy and gestures. “Политик должен говорить просто, но не упрощенно; остроумно, но не вульгарно; литературно, но не заумно” [8]. Of course, Presidents do not prepare all their own statements themselves. Scriptwriters take care of this all over the world; they are specialists in preparing speeches for prominent politicians. Preparing a speech is an intimate process. While all are well aware that the President has his assistants, whom he calls his advisers, no one speaks of this loudly. It is said that Putin has approximately 30-40 advisers working for him. During the preparation of Presidential speeches, his speech writers must take into account the nature, characteristics, diction and mannerism of their “client”. You could say that in a sense, speech writers identify with those for whom they write. Although politicians may have a staff of assistants, they carry the responsibility for the words spoken themselves.

Some believe that if there is any spontaneity in the behaviour of the head of state, then it is an innate trait. This applies especially to verbal behaviour which is easier to control than, for example, facial expressions or gestures. Even in Putin's speeches spontaneity manifests itself several times, which was probably not the result of the actions of speechwriters.

Irina Vepreva, Professor of Rhetoric and Stylistics of Russian, notes that there is a tendency of the simplification of language in speeches of Russian politicians following Putin. It often appears as using colloquial language and sometimes even blatantly rude expressions. This is a consequence of the democratization of language which “началась со снятием цензуры, табу и запретов в российском обществе. Вообще-то, это положительное явление. Европейским странам оно пошло в пользу, а у нас (в России) демократизация речи превратилась в криминализацию. (...) Конечно, понятно, что президент с помощью таких выражений хочет создать образ сильного руководителя” [12].

The Russian President has given political history many expressions which now form part of eloquent expressions. In 2005, affirming that Russia would not negotiate any territorial claims with the Baltic States, Putin said: “не Пыталовский район они получат, а от мёртвого осла уши”. Putin's response to the question of a French journalist at the Russian EU summit in November 2002 gave rise to many comments. The journalist asked him why Russian forces are using antipersonnel mines in Chechnya and whether he thinks that the eradication of terrorism is also destroying the nation of Chechnya. The President first announced that no one can accuse Russia of suppressing freedom and then went on to try to create a caliphate throughout the world and began to explain who faces such a threat from Chechen fighters: “если вы крестьянин, вы в опастности, потому что радикалы-экстремисты преследуют крестьян. Если вы атеист, то тоже в опасности, потому что им не нравятся атеисты. Но если вы мусульманин, то и это вас не спасёт. Приезжайте к нам, у нас многоконфессиональная страна, хорошие врачи, сделают вам обрезание (...) и я порекомендую сделать эту операцию таким образом, чтобы у вас больше ничего не выросло!” [3, p. 183]. Equally shocking was Putin's speech on 22.02.2008, on the subject of recognising the independence of Kosovo. The Russian President said that this kind of event is fraught with unpredictable consequences and supporters of the sovereignty of this region of the state “не просчитывают результатов того, что они делают”. “В конечном итоге, это палка о двух концах, и вторая палка траснет их по башке когда-нибудь” [6]. It is difficult to judge whether these shocking remarks of Putin should be considered as improvisation, non-programmed spontaneity of the President, or if they demonstrate the actual direction of Russian policy. Such statements show that he refers to world public opinion with cynical contempt. The President of such a great country like Russia can admit this of course. This kind of verbal behaviour from Putin is a consequence of new assessment of the political balance in the world. Russia has assumed the post of leader of the Eastern world and has every right to it. The present situation is reminiscent of the challenge launched by the Soviet Union to the West during the Cold War. Indeed, the West has become somewhat weaker due to the crisis within the European Union and the war in Iraq, therefore Russia can take an aggressive stance. Nevertheless, Russia does not want to integrate with western countries, for historical and cultural reasons on the one hand, and on the other, because Russia knows full well that being a part of the West will always be of no great concern. By staying back, Russia is forced to be hostile toward the West in order to emphasize its exclusiveness and position as leader of the Eastern world [4].

The verbal behaviour of Vladimir Putin in many ways resembles a kind of talk-show. His speech is a picture of intelligibility and clarity. The responses of the President are always logical, exhaust the subject, and they are concise yet informative. Putin will always be able to use any issue to say what he considers important. Before him, this consumer attitude to the audience was not noticed in the political arena. So, as a response to a question regarding the development of the e-commerce market, he said: “Представляете, Советский Союз рассыпался, а Россия осталась самой крупной страной в мире!” [2, p. 247].

The biography of the politician and his life experiences are reflected in his communication tactics. You can see a strong influence from the Soviet era in Putin's speeches. The most indicative example is the phrase: “Родина – мать зовет!”. The Russian people represent a great asset for him too, for whom he has high hopes and to whom he completely relates. For Putin, “the nation” is an undivided community and the entire population. This can clearly be seen in many of his statements, for example: “На народ надо опираться прежде всего” (Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, 25.04.2005). Often the President introduces several real-life examples in his speeches to more vividly express his views and therefore convince the audience of the correctness of his decisions. This method brings him closer to the ordinary citizen and so the image of a good President, a man of the people, grows in people's minds. More often than other politicians, Putin uses rhetorical questions which are a good method of asserting the power of the speaker over the audience. The verbal behaviour of the President of Russia is devoid of emotional vocabulary. On one hand it may indicate a lack of emotional response to events in the outside world, but on the other, it may be a conscious self-restriction intended to conceal his passionate temperament. Putin exercises great caution in his statements and he does not like to put himself on the spot. His internal orderliness, developed while working in intelligence, established his reputation as a smart, visionary leader and a good organiser. Putin brought a new style of behaviour to the Kremlin, based on hard work, good judgement, seriousness and a good sense of humour [9]. The style of speech of the incumbent President has been evolving since the time he was prime minister until present day. His speeches were absolutely expressionless before; they lacked new vocabulary and the entire speeches were based upon Yeltsin's clichés. Aside from his statements on the subject of Chechnya, Putin didn't prove himself to be anything special during his time as prime minister. Shortly after Yeltsin resigned, I had the opportunity to comment on any issue and to present the public with his political program [13]. Thanks to the work of experts on political marketing and consulting and of speechwriters, Putin's speech turned into a model of intelligibility and precision.

Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Moscow, 26 April 2007)

Context of the speech.

President Putin gives his annual Address to the Government of the country in the Kremlin. The context of the speech has an affect on his behaviour. He is sure of himself and he acts as the head of state. He can afford to criticize the work of the authorities, knowing full well that members of the Government were taking note of his every word.

Target audience of the speech.

The Address was directed at members of the government and all citizens of Russia. They are waiting for an explanation and an assessment from the President of what is happening in their country and all around the world. The President, of course, selects a topic for the statement taking into account the characteristics of the audience: their age, education and belonging to a given social group. We must also bear in mind the situation in the country, the main issues concerning citizens and the political situation in the world. All these factors affect the selection of lexical and stylistic means which Putin uses. He always tried to speak clearly, accurately and precisely so that all listeners have understood him correctly.

Form of the speech.

An Address – a written request from a statesman on some important political or public issue. An Address is a particular genre of speech. In this, the head of state talked about the situation in the country and the main directions of domestic and foreign policy. The style of the words and the linguistic and extralinguistic means fully comply with the audience. It is a statement made from notes [10]. It is carefully prepared in advance; all information is selected and presented in a certain order. Of course, the listener should feel the mind of the speaker working, and to achieve this, it is particularly important to maintain contact with the audience.

Purpose of the speech.

This speech is a summary of the work of the government, an indication of Russia's place in the international arena and an outline of the goals of the next decade. Putin informed the citizens about what intentions he and the government managed to implement what prospects Russian has for the future.

Topic of the speech.

Vladimir Putin began his speech with a reminder of the achievements of Boris Yeltsin for the consolidation of democracy in Russia and called upon the government to honour his memory with a minute of silence. He then moved onto a list of the most important events of 2007: The State Duma elections and the proclamation of 2007 as the Year of the Russian Language. He highlighted the importance of the upcoming elections of the State Duma in connection with the introduction of a new order. He also listed a number of problems which the state was facing: increasing the volume of regional and local authorities, improving the library system, the creation of the Presidential Library named in honour of Boris Yeltsin, the expansion of construction for new housing, increasing the size of pensions, maintaining the development of small businesses, strengthening the Armed Forces, the efficient use of natural resources and others. Following that, the President moved onto Russian foreign policy. He expressed his dissatisfaction with the CFE Treaty (Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe): “Пора наполнить ОБСЕ реальным содержанием, повернуть организацию лицом к проблемам, действительно волнующим народы Европы, а не искать только «блох» на постсоветском пространстве” and the plans to place anti-missile defence in the Czech Republic and Poland. In conclusion, he recalled the upcoming change of power in Russia and said that although many expected that “сегодняшнее Послание будет посвящено главным образом подведению итогов работы (...) предполагали услышать филосовское оформление рекомендаций на будушее. Однако (...) давать оценки совместной деятельности здесь неуместно”, because President Putin “выступать с политическими завещаниями преждевременно”. It proves indefinitely that Vladimir Putin did not resign and wants to play a more important role in Russian politics. The statement of the President was met with loud applause. At the end of the speech the President announced that Russia “только тогда займет достойное положение в мире (...) если граждане будут видеть, будут чувствовать, будут уверены в том, что все усилия государства направлены на защиту их кровных интересов: на улучшение их жизни, на повышение их благосостаяния и их безопастности. (...) Каждый гражданин России должен чувствовать свою сопричастность с судьбой государства. И каждый должен иметь шанс законным образом улучшить свою собственную жизнь, преумножить трудом богатство своей родины”. The Address of President Putin was interrupted with applause 45 times. That's a substantial record.

Linguistic Means.

In the Address under examination, Putin used a number of methods which allowed him to emphasize important information in the text. Ways to achieve this are characteristic of the verbal behavior of the President and he uses them in almost all his speeches. At a lexical level, it is carried out using the words:

  • обратить внимание: „Обращаю ваше внимание: мы, по сути, открываем ещё одно, сопоставимое с общим финансирование науки, направление – почти в таком же объёме!”, „Обращаю внимание, что в обеспечение делегируемых полномочий федеральный бюджет передаст региональным администрациям 153 миллиарда рублей”. „Обращаю внимание на то, что впервые в Европе могут появиться элементы американского стратегического оружия”.
  • подчеркнуть: „(...) хочу особо подчеркнуть необходимость создания эффективной системы исследований и разработок в области нанотехнологий, основанных на атомном и молекулярном конструировании”. „При этом подчеркну: ответственность с органов власти субъектов Федерации и органов местного сомоуправления никто не снимает”. „(...) ещё раз подчеркну, (поддержание макроэкономической стабилности и борьба с инфляцией) напрямую направлено на рост денежных доходов населения”.
  • именно: „Для реализации именно такой стратегии мы подготовили условия: приняли законы, сформировали необходимые структуры”. „Государственную поддержку получают именно те направления развития, которые связаны с использованием и внедрением самых передовых технологий”. „И, конечно, в этой связи более правильно было бы назвать его именно фондом национального благосостояния”.
  • отметить: „Отмечу также, что все более конструктивным становится наше партнерство с Евросоюзом”. „Хотел бы отметить, что духовное единство народа и объединяющие нас моральные ценности – это такой же важный фактор развития, как политическая и экономическая стабильность”. „В целом отмечу, что за последнее семь лет объём бюджетов Российской Федерации вырос в шесть раз”. „Отмечу, что увеличивается и государственная поддержка общественных организаций”.
  • только: „Только в этом случае (опираясь на базовые морально-нравственные ценности) мы сможем правильно определить ориентиры развития страны”. „При этом мы понимаем, что находимся, конечно, только в начале трудного пути к подлинному возрождению страны”.

Putin uses demonstrative pronouns to emphasize what he considers important information: “Для этого предлагаю уже в текущем году направить 300 миллиардов рублей, предусмотрев в будущем дальнейшие ассигнования на эти цели”, „Только в этом случае мы сможем правильно определить ориентиры развития страны”, „И чем более сплоченным будет наше общество, тем быстрее и уверенней мы сможем пройти этот путь”, „Но именно в этот непростой период был заложен фундамент будущих перемен”, „За три года применения этой системы на региональном уровне количество партийных фракций в местных парламентах увеличилось почти в четыре раза”, „Вместе с тем многие из находящихся сегодня в этом зале предлагают принять правовую норму (...)”, „В этой связи предлагаю часть средств фонда национального благосостояния направлять на софинансирование таких добровольных пенсионных накоплений”. And the adverb of degree: “необходимы значительные изменеия в стуктуре электрогенерации”, „Но возможности, конечно, сильно возросли”, „разрыв между доходами граждан недопустимо большой”, „Значительно расширены компетенция и возможности местных органов власти”, „(...) подставить плечо там, где риски для частных интересов пока ещё слишком высоки”.

Accentuation of important information is also achieved by repeating the word with the addition of a feature or pause which is marked graphically in the text with – dash symbol, for example: “Вкладывая бюджетные средства в экономику, государство должно лишь подставить плечоподставить плечо там, где риски для частных интересов пока ещё слишком высоки”, „(...)идея общего мира – общего для людей различных национальностей и конфессий”, „При сохранении – безусловном сохранении консервативной финансовой политики”, „Согласен с этим предположением, но при условиипри условии – что изменения будут идти постепенно (...)”. Sometimes Putin repeats whole phrases twice without adding anything new so that the audience will pay attention to this phrase and make them think about the significance of what has been said, for example: “С трудом, с трудом можно себе представить, чтобы, например, Соединённые Штаты Америки ограничали на таком основании (договор ДОВСЕ) передвижение войск на собственной територии”, “В нашей стране за весь – подчеркну, за весь – советский период было построено 30 атомных энергоблоков”. This method of accentuation is the most frequently used by Putin. In this speech, he used it over 20 times. More than ten times he used another method: Constructing a sentence with и at the start to emphasize the idea of the words after it: “И основу духовности самого российского народа испокон веков составляла идея общего мира (...)”, „И российские налогоплательщики вправе рассчитывать, что их деньги не будут потрачены на раздувание пустых популистских обещаний или раскачивание основ государственного строя”, „И уже первый год реализации нацпроектов показал, что удалось ориентировать бюджетные расходы на конечный результат”.

A characteristic President Putin's verbal behaviour is the use of copulative conjunctions with and adversative link: “Считаю, что не только государство, но и бизнес может оказывать всемерное содействие возрождению отечественного кино и театра, книгоиздания и литературы”. „Нацпроект в области аграрно-промышленного комплекса не только доказал свою эффективность, но и продемонстрировал огромные потенциальные возможности российского сельского хозяйства”. „Убеждён, новый порядок выборов не только усилить влияние партий на формирование демократической власти, но и будет способствовать росту конкуренции между ними, а следовательно, будет укреплять и улучшать качество российской политической системы”. And the use of inversion thanks to which highlights the most important information: “Забюрократизированность вопросов организации товарищества собственников жилья, чрезмерная налоговая нагрузка на них, а также непосильные обязательства по ремонту – всё это тормозит создание эффективных механизмов реформирования хилищно-коммунального хозяйства”. „И основу духовности самого ороссийского народа испокон веков состовляла идея общего мира – общего для людей различных национальностей и конфессий”.

To maintain contact with the audience, Vladimir Putin often asks rhetorical questions, some of them very often in response, for example: “Конечно, возникает извечный вопрос: где взять деньги? Но, во-первых, деньги у нас есть, и формирование расходной части бюджета – это всегда лишь вопрос выбора приоритетов как на федеральном уровне, так и на региональном. А во-вторых, у меня есть и конкретное предложение: направить на эти цели значительные дополнительные доходы(...)”. „Важнейшее событие этого года – выборы в Государственную Думу. В чём их главная особенность и объединяющее значение для общества? Прежде всего в результате выборов будет объективно определён уровень поддержки народом России проводимого нами с вами курса, фактически будет решаться вопрос о преемственности государственной политики”. You can draw the audience's attention to the topic of the speech by using exclamatory sentences. Their use in speech indicates the speaker's emotional approach to issues which it represents. In the speech examined, Putin raised the tone of his statements several times. First of all, when talking about the low efficiency of the members of the government: “Наши грузопотоки продолжают пути через иностранные порты – ну просто недопустимо! Правительство как будто специально никаких мер не принимает. Ну несколько лет мы говорим об этом!” Although several times the tone of the President's speech turned more stern; he's still trying to achieve the goals, not by using political blackmail or threats, but more with the help of the conviction and requests: “Прошу Правительство рассмотреть вопрос о принятии специальной программы развития аэропортной системы”, “Прошу Правительство это сделать”, “Предлагаю Правительству также проработать вопрос о создании международного консорциума по строительству второй линии Волго-Донского канала”. He presents all of his judgments in the form of suggestions, not orders: “(...) предлагаю часть средств фонда национального благосостояния направлять на софинансирование таких добровольных пенсионных накоплений”, „Для реализации этого проекта предлагаю создать специальную корпорацию, объединяющую предприятия атомной энергетики и промышленности”. The entire time he attempts to maintain an atmosphere of mutual trust and friendship and then addresses member of the government: “Уважаемые коллеги!”.

One of the most frequently used words was “мы”, which Putin used more than 20 times: “мы выполним эту задачу”, мы добились последовательного снижения инфляции”, мы много лет вместе работали”, „мы и до сих пор не преодолели этой проблемы”, „мы ещё позднее поговорим о проиритетах”, „мы уже ввели систему грантов”. This demonstrates how valuable team work is to him and how important it is affiliated to the Russian people. The President says “our problems” all the time, meaning he fully associates with his fellow citizens and they, listening to this kind of speech, may get the impression that the President is one of them, a man of the people who has a good understanding of all the problems of society. This is a good marketing technique which affects the increase in the popularity rating of Vladimir Putin among society. Furthermore in his statement, Putin used these words more than ten times: growth and development, when speaking of a situation in the country and about possibilities: “прошу уже в ближайщее время принять закон о поддержке и развитии малого бизнеса”, развитие портовой структуры”, “стратегия развития наноиндустрии”, “план развития России”, развитие улично-дорджной сети”, “бесспорным лидером роста является, конечно, Интернет”, “рост денежных доходов населения”. The development of the state and the strengthening of its position in the international arena is, according to Putin, one of the most important tasks standing before the government given that “Россия исторически была сильна”, like it should be today. In his Address, the President outlined the exact tasks which society must implement in order for Russia to once again become a great power: “Мы с вами должны с полной отдачей сил до последней минуты наших законных, конституционных полномочий и эффективно использовать то время, которое нам подарила судьба, чтобы послужить России”.

To specify his thoughts, Putin, in the aforementioned Address as well as here, uses a detachment technique: “Ведь от того, каким станет российский парламент после 2 декабря этого года, прямо зависит исполнение наших стратегических планов: это формирование дееспособного гражданского общества, это строительство эффективного государства, обеспечивающего безопастность и достойную жизнь людей, это становление свободного и социально ответственного предпринимательства, это борьба с коррупцией и терроризмом, модернизация Вооружёных Сил и правоохранительных органов, это, наконец, значимое укрепление роли России в международных делах”.

The use of the order of phraseology has been a means of increasing the attention to his speeches since 2007: извечный вопрос („Конечно, возникает извечный вопрос: где взять деньги”?), посмотреть правде в глаза („Нужно посмотреть правде в глаза и признать, что сегодня без поддержки государства многие наши сограждане, оказавшиеся в наиболее тяжёлых, сложных жизненных условиях, сами решить этот вопрос не в состоянии”.), остаться пустым звуком („Прошу, чтобы это не осталось просто пустым звуком”.), подставить плечо („(...) подставить плечо там, где рискидля частных интересовпока ещё слишком высоки (...)”.), сделать акцент („Поэтому акцент должен быть сделан на увеличение доли угольной генерации нового поколения”.), перевернуть организацию лицом к проблемам and words in a figurative sense, to influence the imagery of the speech: „Пора наполнить деятельность ОБСЕ реальным содержанием, повернуть организацию лицом к проблемам, действительно волнующим народы Европы, а не искать только «блох» на постсоветском пространстве”.

Extralinguistic means.

As previously mentioned, the gestures of the President during his speeches in front of his fellow citizens is limited. His hands were almost the entire time on the podium and from time to time he leaned his whole body on his left hand, but nevertheless his body movements were limited. Several times, Putin has made a significant gesture with his hands: Showing the amount of funding for science for the first time (почти в таком же объёме!), and for the second time by listing the individuals of those who have a special responsibility for the multiplication of wealth of their country: members of government, federal ministers, governors, deputies and others. Once there was a significant smile on his face which expressed his pleasure with the support of the government. The speech of the President on the topic of dissatisfaction with the work of the CFE Treaty was interrupted by applause. When the applause died down a little, Putin then said, smiling: “Следующая фраза была: «Прошу Федеральное Собрание поддержать эти предложения» – я так понял, что вы поддерживаете”. An important use of a phonetic device was the use of a pause to highlight the significance of information. The longest pause occurred before the transition to the lyrical part of the President's address dedicated to the change of power in Russia. It was a moment that everyone was anticipating as it was the Presidential election in Russia and it was, at that time, the most important matter for each and every Russian. The audience applauded Putin's statement that “political testament” was still “premature”.

An important phonetic device used by Putin is the composition of logical accentuation, which emphasizes the most significant sentence of the speech.

Political speech mastery demands careful preparation of politicians and long-term work under the guidance of experts in the field of public relations. Not everyone has a clear oratorical talent, but it can be developed. A good example is the way Putin, from an unknown civil servant, always sounded like a well-known, effective speaker.

The most important is that Putin has managed to respond to all the needs of the Russian people, who are in need of a “strong hand” in the sense of security and stabilization. Vladimir Putin has provided society with everything it needs.

After analyzing the speech of Vladimir Putin, we can summarize that what is most important in the speeches of politicians is intelligibility and clarity. You can achieve your purpose by talking straight with simple sentences and using vocabulary appropriate to the audience. This analysis demonstrates perfectly that a selection of certain linguistic and extra-linguistic tools depends primarily on location, destination, form, purpose and topic of the speech.


  • Власть и речь в средствах массовой информации. Научные доклады, ред. О.Б. Сиротинина, Саратов 2005.

  • Голуб. И. Б., Искусство риторики. Пособие по красноречию, Ростов-на-Дону 2005, s. 247.

  • Колесников A., Я Путина видел!, Москва 2005.

  • Pipes R., Car bez caratu, „Wprost” 2007, nr 26, str. 84-87.

  • Политическая речь как политическое действие, [14/08/2015]

  • Путин о Косове: это палка о двух концах, когда-нибудь она “треснет их по башке”, [14/08/2015]

  • Цуладзе A.M., Политические манипуляции, или Покорение толпы, Москва 1999.

  • [15/08/2015]

  • [10.06.2012]

  • [14.08.2015]

  • Путин о Косове: это палка о двух концах, когда-нибудь она “треснет их по башке”, [14/08/2015]

  • [14/08/2011]

  • [14.08.2015]