THE CATEGORY OF COHERENCE AND NATION-DISCOURSE FORMATION
Every nation as a language community regularly and constantly interacts according to the base of common, known to everybody signs. The concrete language encodes the worldimage relevant for members of the definite nation. It should be mentioned that linguistic worldimage is a dynamic phenomenon, reflecting and changing in the way of life of the language community. People, not only speaking one language but living in the same socio-common and culture-political conditions, for example in the same time in the same country, have the equitable linguistic worldimage. All these facts limit members’ of an interlanguage communication pattern of background knowledge independently of individual preferences. Thus “time” and “place” limit generated utterances due to identity of the members’ of the communication positions. This gives a reason to regard the concrete language community as a different from other nations discourse formation (we use this notion coined by M.Foucault in “The Archaeology of Knowledge” – Milevskaya T.V., Abbasova L.A.) and to describe a range of people having identical background knowledge as a nation-discourse formation [1, 24].
The discourse analysis of texts generated during one period allows to determine relations set up among concepts which are actual for the concrete society during the concrete period (sometimes rather continuous). It seems to us that periods of contiguity of concepts differ. From 1917 to 1991 the soviet epoch had been connecting such concepts as «труд», «союз», «красный», for example. Besides the abolition of the communist system did not break the relations among these concepts in the native speakers’ language awareness in one stage. Here “the native speakers” is “the soviet people” as the community of vehicles of identical ideology and stock of knowledge that presents notion-discourse formation. The refusal of static character within the scope of ideology caused the dynamic of the discourse. In support of this conjecture, we can carry out cognitive-discourse analysis of the situation of 90s in The Russian Federation.
“Ваучер” had been intimately connected within the scope of nation-linguistic formation with the concept privatization. Every native speaker of that relatively impermanent period realized this notion as a part of the concept «государственная экономика» in its turn. The extracts from the chronicle of 1992 “Независимая газета” illustrate the functioning of the lexeme ваучер and its co-occurrence range, that provides the basis for the coherence within the scope of the articles in point.
Ельцин получил свой ваучер
Президент РФ Борис Ельцин получил вчера свой приватизационный чек. «Не хочу пользоваться дополнительной месячной отсрочкой для получения своего приватизационного чека», — сказал Ельцин журналистам. Он подчеркнул, что вместе с другими гражданами России хотел бы воспользоваться чеком в период перехода к рыночному хозяйству.
"Ваучеры", или приватизационные чеки, были выпущены в январе 1992 года. По сути, это было массовое частное инвестирование в приватизируемые госпредприятия, - отметила эксперт. - Каждый мог купить себе частичку завода, колхоза, банка, магазина.
The lexeme ваучер groups with the verb получить. In the headline, the author uses this lexeme, but in the text he replaces it with the collocation приватизационный чек. This proves the synonymy of ваучер and приватизационный чек. The relative adjective приватизационный refers to the notion приватизация, whitch characterizes the economic circumstances in the country when the article was written, the phrase «воспользоваться чеком в период перехода к рыночному хозяйству» proves this. The notion приватизационный чек was the part of the concept приватизация. It is obvious that now such conceptual connection is not set as primary and it is not actualized in everyday communication.
The word combination «приватизационный чек» can be used in the modern discourse only within the reference to Russia at the beginning of 90s.
The reality (present for the author) is reflected in the discourse. The connection of the notions ваучер, чек and приватизация was familiar (regular) for members of Russian discourse-language formation, in other language formations such connection was not set without the reference to the events in Russia.
A coherence within a discourse is based on relevant for a concrete language community connections of a language unit. These connections can be determined during the analysis of the functioning of so-called colorisms.
We can study well-known nominations «Красная Москва» and «Красный мак» as the realization of the coherence between the concept красный and the notions Москва and мак. At the present time such connection in the native speakers' Russian worldimage is not set. The unit Москва and the adjective красный are not contiguous. The connection between красный and маки is possible, but in this case the denotatum changes: the word combination красные маки in the language awareness correlate to red poppies, not to cosmetic production like in the soviet epoch.
The analysis of the advertising discourse allows to observe the coherence of nominations of one colour field, sometimes – of the whole concept.
In the nominations of colour shades we can observe the coherense of the colorisms describing them through interrelationship between the subject of the comparison and the advertised colour shade of the cosmetic product (white: снег, арктический белый, снежный ландыш, искрящийся снег; beige: естественный бежевый, топленое молоко, сливочным крем, песочный, бисквит; red: красная смородина, страстный алый, дерзкий красный, глинтвейн, жажда огня, красный мак; brown: шоколадный мусс, орех, аппетитное какао, горячий кофе, теплый каштан).
The analysis of the discourse reveals that the reflection of colour concepts is not only proper colour nominations (черный, белый, красный) but lexemes mean subjects and phenomena connected with describing colours. Besides a communicant-producer encodes the information in such a way that due to identity of background knowledge perceiving a message recipient without extra intellectual efforts recreates an encoded colour characteristic relying on a coherence between components and in a discourse both in an awareness.
A national causality and linguistic wordimage predetermination can be illustrated with a striking instance of the colour nomination of art goods кассельский коричневый (Faber-Castell, Germany). It is obvious that a native Russian speaker can not realize the shade of brown without extra reference sources. The source of communicative failure is the difference between Russian and German language communities' background knowledge, the absence of conceptual coherence between the components of the colour nomination. Thus in the act of translating a colour nomination the connection between this unit and the denotatum can be lost because of the absence of this unit in one of these linguistic worldimages.
So a coherence is conditioned with entry/non-entry of a particular component in a definite concept fixed in a particular language community's awareness. What is more a cultural experience is essential.
Фуко М. Археология знания. Гуманитарная академия. СПб. - 2012. - С. 24