Research article
Issue: № 1 (1), 2015


This article examines linguistic description of lexical units of a language which is not possible without recourse to the theory of designation , by now prevailing in linguistics. From figuring out of  how to correlate  conceptual forms of thinking, how names for different fragments are created, distributed and fixed.

The exceptional nature of human language is to perform word denotation as well as the sentence one. That’s where the metaliguistic capability of interpreting not only semiotic systems but also the language itself comes from. All that gives the researches an ideal opportunity to come to the following conclusion:  there are two different, though interconnected, spheres of designation in a language.

Firstly, it is the scope of the primary, actually semiological method of forming verbal signs denoting repetitive presentation of objective reality and subjective experience of native speakers. Secondly it’s the area of ​​secondary denotation, creating statements as "full signs". Nominative signs are mainly used for classification-nominative sphere and, performing representative function, denote single objects and facts as well as give the name of the class of objects or a series of facts, because they express the generalized notions and concepts of the diverse "world of things and ideas."

Predicative signs "supply" the sphere of communication, so the core of the signified of these distinctive signs is a communicative task, the modality of expression, something new, what actually these speech units are created for.

Thus, classification of the term "primary category" to the words and phrases, and "secondary nomination" to the sentences respectively, is justified by comparing the words in the language system and sentences as units of speech.

Primary and secondary designation in this sense is represented differently in terms of "basic" and "modified"; "Deep" and "casual". To refer to the ability of modern languages ​​replenish their inventory nominative, the concept of secondary nomination is introduced, which is understood as the use of phonetic shape of a primitive linguistic unit for the new labeling, i.e. the emergence of new values ​​in a particular linguistic unit.

The results of secondary nomination are seen as derivatives of morphological structure and meaning. Methods of secondary nomination in this sense differ a lot, depending on the linguistic resources used to create new names, and the nature of this interconnection is "the name of reality."

According to the type of techniques for differentiation the following are used: 1) word formation as a regular way of creating new words and meanings; 2) syntactic transposition, in which the morphological means indicates a change in syntactic function while maintaining lexical meaning; 3) semantic transposition, which does not change the material image reinterpreted units and leads to the polysemantic words formation. By the nature of specifying the name of the validity, two types of secondary nomination are recognised - autonomous and non-autonomous (indirect).

Autonomous nomination is a secondary meaning of the words, taking on an independent nominative function and calling that a fragment of objective reality, with its features or acts being autonomous on the basis of a single name. When a non-autonomous formation of a new linguistic unit occurs through the use of combinatorial techniques, such sign unit "always refers to its referent indirectly, through semantic reference for this combination name".

Thus, the indirect secondary nomination is presented in the language in a logical form of tropes. Phrases, realized due to the constructive value, are simple nominative signs, acting as multiword equivalent of the word.


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