Research article
Issue: № 4 (20), 2019


Antonyms, like synonyms, consitutes a kind of paradigmatic conjunction of words. Antonymy, as a theoretical problem of lexicology, is closely related to the practical needs of its proper implementation in lexicographic work. Words, in contrast to meaning, in themselves represent an aspect of lexical microsystem with conditional connections of explicitly expressed elements. In this paper we will analyze in detail the antonym words with prefixes in the terminology of Economy in the Albanian language. We will make a structural and semantic analysis of antonyms with prefixes, focusing more on their analysis by the structure, which relates to the type or degree of the contradiction or the semantic contradictory features of these antonym words, with the structural and semantic relation that exists between the subject of the word with a prefix and that without a prefix, and with the antonymic function of the prefixes. This is made possible on the basis of the close link that this phenomenon, like the synonymy, has with ambiguity. The same word, in different meanings, simultaneously enters into different synonymic and antonymic conjunctions and thus enters the composition of different groups of the terminological system. The bulk of the examples we rely on, which reveal the features of antonymy in the terminology of Economy in the Albanian language have been extracted from monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, as well as from published university textbooks from the field of economics.


Antonyms as a particular linguistic phenomenon present in itself a range of problems of great lexicological and lexicographic interest. In Albanian language linguistics, as well as in particular national languages, a study of Albanian antonyms has been conducted, beginning in the second half of the 20th century [27, P.57-63].

Antonyms are defined as "words with the opposite meaning", but this definition is not sufficient, so there is a need for a broader definition so as to distinguish which words have the opposite meaning. According to Paradis [13, P.31] “antonyms are two or more words of the same language belonging to the same part of speech and to the same semantic field, identical in style and nearly identical in spreading, which are often associated or used together so that their denotative meanings render contrary or contradictory notions”. The problem with the definition also lies in the fact that it is difficult to describe what is easily illustrated by examples, as such it is difficult to find a definition that applies to any example of antonyms. It is more than obvious that the early studies of antonyms are seen in the light of the principles and logical conclusions, very superficial linguistically. In the Albanian language, studies in this field have begun and are ongoing, facilitated and enabled by comparative inter-lingual studies. Scholars in this field have re-expressed themselves on a variety of issues, correcting and reassessing some of the key features of antonyms in light of linguistic development and under the influence of other language studies. Albanian scholars regarding the antonyms of the Albanian language are: J. Thomai, M. Samara, I. Goçi, etc. J. Thomai [27, P.61] rightly points out: “As long as there are contradictions in nature, there will always be antonyms in language as well”.

M. Samara [23, P.144] gives this definition: “Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning, which first assert themselves, then deny the opposite word”. Similarly I. Goçi [6, P.12], gives this definition: “Antonyms are pairs of words and opposing meanings between them, which, by complementing one another's meaning, through this contradiction, they first assert themselves, then deny one another”. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics [1, P.18], defines antonym: “Antonym in its broadest sense collectively reflects all sorts of semantic contradiction”. According to Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics, [14, P.14], antonym is defined as “a word which is opposite in meaning to another word”.   

Antonyms are used in various lectures and styles of the standard Albanian language. Antonyms are the most appropriate linguistic means by which one expresses the opposite character of things, processes and phenomena intricate in nature and in society.  In the pair i mirë — i keq (good – bad), antonymic links are expressed between two opposing assertions [5, P.13]. 

In Albanian language, by construction, antonyms are of two kinds:

  1. Completely different antonyms of words that have no common source or origin about word formation (which are real antonyms), as: i ashpër — i butë (tough – soft), i trashë — i hollë (thick – thin), marr — jap (take – give), jashtë — brenda (outside – inside), etc.
  2. Antonyms formed with prefixed with the opposite meaning, as: lodhem — çlodhem (get tired – relaxed), organizoj — çorganizoj (organize – disorganize), qetëso — shqetësoj (calm down – bother), kamje — skamje (wealth- poverty), besim — mosbesim (faith–unbelief), marrëveshje — mosmarrëveshje (agreement-disagreement), barazi — pabarazi (equality – inequality), zyrtar — jozyrtar (official – unofficial) etc.

Pairs of antonyms are mostly created with words that indicate quality (adjectives and adverbs), time, size, age, features of character and action, such as: dritë — errësirë (light – darkness), i madh — i vogël(big – small), plak — i ri (old man – young), mirë — keq(good – bad), shpejt — ngadalë(quickly – slowly), etc.

Antonyms from a structural point of view

A very important role in countering the meanings of these words plays the prefix. Below we present some antonyms, which will be analyzed from a structural point of view, like: dëmtim — zhdëmtim (damage- compensation), dëmtoj — zhdëmtoj (harm – indemnify), organizim — mosorganizimi (organization – disorganization), zbatim — moszbatim (implementation – non- implementation), kënaqësi — moskënaqësi(satisfaction – dissatisfaction), makroaorganizim —mikroaorganizim(macro-organization — micro-organization), makrosistem— mikrosistem (macro-system – micro-system), makrolimë — mikroklimë (macroclimate – microclimate), kamje —  skamje(wealth- poverty), bujqësor — jobujqësor(agricultural - non – agricultural), ligjor —  kundërligjor (legal – illegal), etc. These antonyms have a common theme, which in some cases coincides with the root of the word. In some of these pairs, one of the elements is a derivative word with prefix and the other without a prefix; in some pairs both elements are words with prefix. Based on the prefix for the formation of antonyms words, antonyms pairs can be divided into two groups:

  1. Antonym pairs that have one word with a prefix and the other without prefix:
  • anti- shkencor —  antishkencor (scientific – unscientific), trust —  antitrust (trust-antitrust), kushtetues — antikushtetues (constitutional-anti constitutional) etc.
  • ç- edukim — çedukim (education-illiteracy), mpreh —  çmpreh (sharpen – unsharpened), regjistrim — çregjistrim (registration - deregistration), rregullim — çrregullim (repair-disruption, etc.
  • de- centralizim — decentralizim (centralization-decentralization), nacionalizim — denacionalizim (nationalization-denationalization), fuzion — defuzion (ffusion-diffusion), detyrim —zhdetyrim(obligation-release), etc.
  • dis (dez)- harmonizim — disharmonizim (harmonize – disharmonize), etc.
  • jo- ekonomik — joekonomik (economic-non-economic), formal-joformal (formal-nonformal), ekuilibër — joekuilibër (equilibrium-disequilibrium), klient —joklient (costumer-non-costumer), kompetent — jokompetent (competent-incompetent), miqësor — jomiqësor (friendly-unfriendly), objektiv — joobjektiv (objective-non-objective), prodhues — joprodhues (productive -non-productive), rentabël — jorentabël (profitable-unprofitable), zyrtar — jozyrtar (official-unofficial) etc. Antonym words formed with this prefix may express the opposite or lack of what the main words denote without this prefix, but generally deny the meaning of the word without prefix.
  • kundër- forcë — kundërforc/ë-a (force – counter-force), goditje-a — kundërgoditje (strike-counterstrike), kërkesë — kundërkërkesë (claim-counterclaim), ofertë — kunërofertë (offer - counter-offer), padi — kundërpadi (charge -counter charge), propozim — kundërpropozim,-I (proposal - counter proposal), veprim,-i — kundërveprimi (reaction - counteraction), vlerë — kundërvlerë (value -counter value) etc.
  • mos- besim — mosbesim (faith–unbelief), mirënjohje—mosmirënjohje (gratitude-ingratitude), mirënjohës—mosmirënjohës (grateful-ungrateful), ekzekutim — mosekzekutim (execution - non execution), zbatim — moszbatim (implementation - non-implementation), njohje — mosmirënjohje (recognition–ungratefulness), pagim — mospagim (payment - non-payment), pëlqim — mospëlqim (consent – denial), pajtim — mospajtim (agreement-disagreement), përmbushje — mospërmbushje (fulfillment-default), pranim — mospranim (acceptance-non-acceptance) etc. These antonyms words formed with this prefix "are inconsistent with today's literary norm of the Albanian language [25. P.115]; are action names and retain the meaning of the corresponding verbs.
  • pa- aftësi — paaftësi (ability – disability), anësi — paanësi (partiality – impartiality), anshmëri — paanshmëri (bias – unbiased), etc.
  • sh- përbërje — shpërbërje (composition - dissolution), pyllëzim — shpyllëzim (forestation-deforestation), pronësim — shpronësim (ownership - expropriation) etc.
  • shpër- ndarje — shpërndarje (division- distribution), ngulem — shpërngulem (establish-migrate), përqëndrohem—shpërqëndrohem (concentrate – distracted), etc.
  • zh- dëmtim — zhdëmtim (damage–indemnity), doganim— zhdoganim (customs -payment of custom duties), vendosje — zhvendosje (placement-dislocate), vleftësim — zhvleftësim (validation-devaluation), vlerësim — zhvlerësim (valuation -depreciation) et.

Antonyms words with prefixes: jo-, mos-, pa-, are relatively new.

Antonym words with prefix pa- are with negative meanings, which indicate a lack of quality; form antonyms words that mainly are nouns and adjectives.

  1. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix jo-: blerës,i — joblerës,-i(buyer - non-buyer); bujqësi,-a — jobujqësi,-a(agriculture — non-agriculture); ekonomi,-a — joekonomi,-a (economy - non-economy); kompetenc/ë,-a — jokompetnc/ë-a(competence – incompetence); likuiditet,-i — jolikiditet,-i(liquidity – illiquidity); rentabilitet,-i — jorentabilitet,-i(profitability - non-profitability); vler/ë,-a — jovler/ë,-a(value - non-value), etc.
  2. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix mos-  usually indicate lack of implementation of process, action or lack of action results, like: arrijtje — mosarrijtje (achievement – failure), barazim — mosbarazim(reconciliation - non-reconciliation), besim — mosbesim(faith – unbelief), dorëzim — mosdorëzim(delivery - non-delivery), interesim —  mosinteresim(interest – disinterest), intervenim — mosintervenim (intervention-non-intervention), kthim — moskthim(return - non-return), kundërshtim — moskundërshtim(opposition - non-opposition), kuptim — moskuptim(understanding – misunderstanding),  lejim —  moslejim(allowing – inhibition), livrim — moslivrim (delivery-non-delivery), marrëveshje — mosmarrëveshje (accordance-dispute), miratim — mosmiratim(approval – disapproval), mirëmbajtje — mosmirëmbajtje (maintenance - non-maintenance),  ndërhyrje — mosndërhyrje (interference-non-interference), njohje — mosnjohje(recognition - non-recognition), organizim —  mosorganizim(organization – disorganization), pagesë —mospagesë(payment-non-payment), pagim — mospagim (payment-non-payment), pajtim — mospajtim (agreement-disagreement), paraqitje — mosparaqitje(appearance - non-appearance), parashikim — mosparashikim(prediction – non-prediction), pasqyrim — mospasqyrim(reflection - non-reflection), pëlqim — mospëlqim (approval-disapproval), përdorim —  mospërdorim(use-disuse), përfillje — mospërfillje (consideration-non-consideration), përkujdesje — mospërkujdesje (vigilance-negligence), përmbajtje — mospërmbajtje(continence-incontinence), përputhje — mospërputhje(compliance – inconsistency), përshtatje — mospërshtatje(adaptation - non-adaptation), përzierje — mospërzierje(interference-noninterference), pjesëmarrje — mospjesëmarrje(participation-boycott), plotësim — mosplotësim(fulfillment- non-fulfilment), pranim —  mospranim(acceptance – rejection), realizim — mosrealizim, ) realization - non-realization), respektim — mosrespektim(respect – disrespect), sigurim — mossigurim(insurance -non-insurance),   sukses — mossukses(success – failure), tejkalim — mostejkalim(excess - non-excess), veprim — mosveprim(action – inaction), zbatim — moszbatim (performance -non-performance) etc.
  3. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix pa-aftësi — paaftësi (ability-disability), drejtësi — padrejtësi (justice-injustice), qartësi — paqartësi (clarity – ambiguity), ligjshmëri — paligjshmëri(legality – illegality), rrezikshmëri — parrezikshmëri(risk – safety), saktësi — pasaktësi(accuracy – inaccuracy), pasuri — papasuri(wealth-poverty), rregullsi — parregullsi (regularity – irregularities), mjaftueshmëri — pamjaftueshmëri (sufficiency-insufficiency), punësi — papunësi (employment-unemployment), siguri — pasiguri (certainly-uncertainly) etc.
  4. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix jo: afarist,-e — joafarist,-e (businessperson - non-businessperson); detyrues,-e — jodetyrues,-e(binding - non-binding); ekonomik,-e — joekonomik,-e(economical – uneconomical); kompetent,-e — jokompetent,-e(competent – incompetent); produktiv,-e — joproduktiv,-e(productive – unproductive); prodhimtar,-e — joprodhimtar-e(productive, -e – unproductive); racional,-e — joracional-e(rational – irrational); rentabil,-e — jorentabil,-e(profitable - non-profitable); zyrtar,-e — jozyrtar,-e (official – unofficial) etc.  
  5. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix mos- usually formed by few adjectives derived from a verb stem having no attributive article: miratues — mosmiratues(approving – disapproving), mirëdashës — mosmirëdashës(kind-unkind), përfillës — mospërfillës (respectful-indifferent), mirënjohës — mosmirënjohës(grateful – ungrateful) etc.
  6. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix pa- n-in the pairs: i amortizuar  — i paamortizuar (amortized-unamortized), i arkëtuar — i paarkëtuar(collected – uncollected), i arsimuar — i paarsimuar(educated – uneducated), i arsyeshëm  — i paarsyeshëm (reasonable-reasonless), i banuar — i pabanuar (inhabited-uninhabited), i baraspeshuar — i pabaraspeshuar(balanced – unbalanced), i barazueshëm — i pabarazueshëm(equal – unequal), i bashkuar — i pabashkuar(united-disunited), i besueshëm — i pabesueshëm(reliable – unreliable), i bindshëm — i pabindshëm(obedient-disobedient), i caktuar — i pacaktuar (definite-indefinite),i cenuar — i pacenuar(vulnerable-invulnerable), i cilësuar — i pacilësuar(qualified – unqualified), i çmueshëm — i paçmueshëm(precious – invaluable), i dallueshëm — i padallueshëm(distinguishable – indistinguishable), i deklaruar — i padeklaruar(declared – undeclared), i dëmtuar — i padëmtuar(damaged – undamaged), i disciplinuar  — i padisciplinuar(disciplined-undisciplined), i diskutueshëm — i  padiskutueshëm(disputable-indisputable), i dobishëm — i  padobishëm(useful – useless), i doganuar — i padoganuar(customs cleared- customs not cleared), i doganueshëm — i padoganueshëm (dutiable-non-dutiable), i emërtuar — i  paemërtuar(named – unnamed), i kalueshëm — i pakalueshëm(passable – impassable), i këmbuyeshëm — i pakëmbyeshëm(changeable – unchangeable), i kualifikuar — i pakualifikuar(qualified – unqualified), i kufizuar — i pakufizuar(limited – unlimited), i kujdesshëm — i pakujdesshëm(caring – careless), i kushtëzuar — i pakushtëzuar (conditional-unconditional), i lajmëruar — i palajmëruar(announced- unannounced), i lejueshëm — i palejueshëm(acceptable-unacceptable), i lidhur — i palidhur(bounded-unbounded), i llogaritur — i  pallogaritur(calculated- uncalculated),i mborjtur — i pambrojtur(protected- unprotected), i mbuluar — i pambuluar(covered – uncovered), i miratuar — i pamiratuar(approved – unapproved), i ndërprerë — i pandërprerë(interrupted-uninterrupted), i nevojshëm — i panevojshëm(necessary – unnecessary), i organizuar — i paorganizuar(organized – unorganized), i paguar — i papaguar (paid-unpaid), i paketuar — i papaketuar (-packed-unpacked), i përballueshëm — i papërballueshëm(affordable – unaffordable), i përdorur — i papërdorur(used – unused), i përfunduar — i papërfunduar(finished – unfinished), i peshuar — i papeshuar(weighted – unweighted), i programuar — i paprogramuar(planned-unplanned),  i punuar — i papunuar(wrought – unwrought), i qëndrueshëm — i paqëndrueshëm (stable – unstable),   i rëndësisshëm — i parëndësishëm (considerable-negligible), i shpalluar — i pashpallur (declared-undeclared), i tatuar — i patatuar (taxed-untaxed), i vërtetuar — i pavërtetuar (confirmed-unconfirmed), i zhvilluar — i pazhvilluar(developed – undeveloped) etc.
  7. Antonym words verbs formed with the prefix ç-/ sh-: edukoj — çedukoj (educate- illiterate), mbledh — çmbledh(gather-ungather), mobilizoj — çmobilizoj (mobilize – demobilize), mat — çmat (measure- unmeasured), mbështjell — çmbështjell(wrap-unwrap), organizoj — çorganizoj (organize – disorganize), orientoj — çorientoj(orient-disorient), regjistroj — çregjistroj(enroll-unenrolled); rregulloj — çrregulloj(regulate-unregulated), paketoj — shpaketoj (pack-unpack), përqendroj — shpërqendroj(concentrate – distract), pyllëzoj — shpyllëzoj (forest – deforest), etc.
  1. In the second group of antonyms pairs belong antonyms with a prefix, one as the word form element of the first speech of the pair and the other as the word form element of the second speech of that pair. Antonym words, in the terminology of economics that in their composition have the Albanian prefixes: nën-e mbi, para– e prapa; pas, jashtë e brenda, sipër- e poshtë (under - over, on; front - behind, back; outside - inside; up - down)   
  1. nën- e mbi: nënbilanc,-i — mbibilancë,-i (sub-balance – overbalance); nënçmoj — mbiçmoj(underestimate – overestimate); nënçmim,-i — mbiçmim,-i(underestimation – overestimation); nënkalim,-i — mbikalim,-i(underpass – overpass); nënkontroll,-i — mbikontroll,-i(sub-control - over-control); nënngarkes/ë,-a — mbingarkes/ë(unload-overload); nënpeshë,-a — mbipeshë,-a(underweight – overweight); nënprodhim,-i — mbiprodhim,-i (sub-production – overproduction); nënvlerësim,-i — mbivlerësim,-i(underestimation – overestimation); nëntokë — mbitokë(underground - above ground); nënujor,-e — mbiujor,-e (underwater - overwater ), etc.
  2. para e prapa, pas: paradhëni/e,-a — pasdhëni/e,-a (advance payment- after-payment); parabilanc — pasbilanc(pre-balances-after-balances); parashtesë — prapashtesë(prefix – suffix); paravendosje — pasvendosje (pre-deployment - post-deployment ), etc.
  3. jashtë e brenda: jashtëuniversitar —  brendauniversitar(extra-university - intra-university); jashtëgjuhësor — brendagjuhësor(extra-lingual - intra-lingual); i jashtëligjshëm — i brendaligjshëm(outlaw –legal), etc.
  4. sipër- e poshtë:    i sipërshënuar — i poshtëshënuar (abovementioned – below-mentioned; i sipërtreguar — i poshtëtreguar (aforementioned-subsequent), etc.


Antonyms, not only are not foreign to the terminology of economics in Albanian language, but, on the contrary in this terminology antonyms become a tool for expressing the necessary and inevitable phenomena of science; therefore, both quantitatively and semantically, there are many antonyms added in this regard (usually naming state and quality).

Antonymic pairs in terminology seem more natural than in general language, they become more expressive of the phenomena necessary in the field of scientific knowledge by emphasizing the systemic character of terminology. Lexical meanings of antonymic pairs: doganim,-i —  zhdoganim (customs - payment of custom duties), ekonomik,-e — joekonomike (economic – uneconomic), makroaorganizim,-i  —  mikroaorganizim (macro-organization – micro-organization), makrosistem,-i — mikrosistem (macro-system – microsystem), mikrobot/ë-a — makrobotë (micro-robot — macro-robots), mikroorganiz/ëm,-mi — makroorganizim (microorganism – macro-organism), nënshtrim,-i — mosnënshtrim (obedience-nonobservance), constitute the most extreme edges in the range of opposing meanings; so we have complete antonymous relationships. Thus, antonyms serve as a complementary explanation when we want to give good explanations of words; adjective i madh (big) (in the dictionary) has its antonym i vogël (small). When words are opposites in the basic sense, then they are complete antonyms, their contradiction it does not depend very much from the context. Also, there are words that in the basic sense are not antonyms, but in certain cases they appear as antonyms.

In many cases, antonyms have completely opposite meanings, we have complete antonyms, like: vonë — herët (late – early), i rëndë — i lehtë (heavy – light), poshtë — lartë (down – up). In some adjectives and adverbs that indicate density, temperature, quality, etc., and in some formations with prefixes jo-, mos-, pa- the contradiction is not always complete, the word with prefix denies the meaning of the word without prefix, affirms the opposite state, but does not affirm the opposite action.


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