EUPHEMISMS IN LANGUAGE OF THE FRENCH MASS MEDIA: PRAGMATICAL ASPECT
In the previous decade the euphemisms formation process proceeds with special intensity. This is explained by the fact that in the modern world one of the most important factors promoting euphemisms formation, and their fastening in a language is their ability to be a powerful tool of new public sets formation, and euphemisms receive extremely wide circulation in socially significant spheres of speech activity. In most cases euphemisms are not simply stylistic synonyms or substitutes of some language unit, they displace an emotional dominant and offer new treatment of a certain phenomenon, a new scope of its consideration, contain a new morally-ethical estimation of the phenomenon. Proceeding from it, the occurrence of a considerable quantity of euphemisms testifies to change of the public reference points in human life spheres, and it’s the result of occurrence and fastenings in public consciousness of new sociopolitical doctrines. Thus euphemisms, on the one hand, reflect already occurred shifts of public consciousness, and, on the other hand, promote distribution and fastening of new ideas in society.
The objective of this work consists in research of euphemisms pragmatical function in language of French mass media.
To achieve of the specified objective the following problems are set and solved:
1. Research of pragmatical characteristics of the euphemism in language of the French mass media;
2. Revealing of pragmatical potential of euphemisms in the language of French media texts.
Methodological basis of research. The methodological concept of the work is based on the deductively-inductive approach of a language material research.
Specific scientific the research methods, concerning linguistics: the descriptive analysis, a method of the componential analysis, a method of linguistic supervision are applied.
Discussion of the research outcomes
We suggest considering some aspects of pragmatical functioning of this figure in the homogeneous case, namely in the language of mass media, emphasising communicative strategy and sociocultural aspect with forms the basis of these strategies.
In our opinion, the euphemism has necessary potential for figurative interpretation. Its regulating configurations which repeat in the statement, beneficially effect on memorisation and efficiency of a verbal exchange. The euphemism is also noted by another typical aspect of it – sociophonic importance. After all the euphemism occurs not from the isolated person. It is born in collective expression of thought, in interaction: one can euphemise under the pressure of someone, something or at the desire of someone. « The voice of another »plays the big role in euphemism formation. Proceeding from it, the euphemism is included into a family of figures of speech with a sociocultural component, as for example slangs or apocopes, than it is neglected by rhetorics and stylists, preferring more individualised speech formations to euphemisms. The euphemism is inseparable from the processes of the evident image in the course of a speech exchange and is directed to, according to linguist K.Kerbra-Orechoni , on dialogue optimum development. These processes of figurativeness are presented much in language of the French mass media. They are presented by journalists or news participants the quoted by journalists. It especially concerns issues of policy, economy or social life.
In the reference plan mass media language euphemisms are designated by negative reviewers from the point of view of information: war, poverty, corruption, physical defects. It all covers conflict situations which, nevertheless, are vital. Mass media language euphemisms remodify these situations proceeding from two processes:
1. The denomination process based on masking of lexemes, designating these situations.
The reviewers designating the negative information, mask in mass-media easily. Not to name something designates to deny the fact presence. Euphemisation is a certificate of the name negation or code name assignment: war ceases to be war, corruption ceases to be corruption. Such vagueness of definitions is accompanied by renomination processes of the negative reviewers connected with latent lexemes. The purpose of this renomination is to make detramatizated reality.
2. Softening processing.
Negative reviewers are exposed to softening processing. It consists in reduction of their negative character, proceeding from speech strategy in softening direction. These strategies are expressed categorisation language in gipironimic attenuation. Using unclear terms, avoiding too exact semantic lines and alternating this softening, they establish absolutely exact reference .
Euphemisms represent the layer of lexicon in which regulative pragmatical properties has been already set in the system of language. The usage of euphemisms helps to create modern mass media language illusion of the justification, for example, unpopular policy.
So in the article with the heading «TF1 prépare des mesures d'austérité», the author obviously resorts to neutralisation of the fact of mass lay-offs of French television channel workers:
«La combinaison des différentes mesures de départs pourrait engendrer une diminution de 10% des effectifs, soit environ 300 personnes. «Un chiffre concernant des départs de collaborateurs prétendument évoqué lors d'un comité d'entreprise circule à l'extérieur de l'entreprise. Ceci est infondé, les partenaires sociaux peuvent d'ailleurs en témoigner», a réagi Nonce Paolini, le PDG de TF1, dans un courrier adressé à ses collaborateurs. «En revanche, il a été expliqué lors du dernier comité que nous poursuivions notre plan d'économies», ajoute le PDG» (Le Figaro du 3.06.2012).
The journalist P. Gonsalez, as well as the company management quoted by it, masterfully mask the scandalous fact of mass lay-offs by expressions «measures of rigid economy», «resignation of employees». But the language of press puts at the head the reference system deprived of emotions. Thereof a dedramatized reality arises. Such blackout of the facts also promotes manipulation with mass consciousness.
The word «mesures» is also frequent in French media texts language. It also possesses vague semantics. For example, a phrase
«Le gouvernement a pris des mesures d’apaisement pour désamorcerler conflits», in reality most likely designates, that the government used military forces for conflict elimination.
But what forms the semantic base of desirable pragmatical effect for creation of the statement?
There is a difficult dialectic communication, original diffusion Between pragmatics and semantics. So, in Stepanov’s understanding semantics means sense, the pragmatist – (influencing) force. On the one hand, the force includes sense, on the other hand, it pragmatically occurs from sense .
From the point of view of semantics, the foundation of euphemisms formation lays the overestimate notion in comparison with concept. The speaker somehow strengthens a positive effect, i.e. creates discrepancy between a notion and a concept therefore the estimated relation becomes the notion above, than concept. The indirection designations – the main distinctive property of euphemiya – in the psychological plan it is expressed also an establishment of associative communications between denotation, which direct designation is tabooed (prohibited), and denotation with which the association is created. Presence of the last – an obligatory euphemiya condition .
Among exposed euphemiya words/among words exposed to euphemiya dominate lexemes with the abstract semantics, which form neutral, uncertain representation about denotation at reader. Semantics width creates a veil covering negative essence of the phenomenon, reaching it the desirable pragmatical effect. There is a difficult dialectic communication, original diffusion between pragmatics and semantics lexical units. Paradoxical line of euphemisms – semantic derivational morphemes is the contradiction between their positive pragmatics in a context and negative semantics in language system.
a. «Toutes les parties à œ uvrer pour résoudre leurs divergences de façon pacifique» (Le Monde du 19.12.2011).
b. «La fin de la malnutrition, clé du développement durable» (Le Figaro du 01.06.2012).
In the first example the word "distinction" is the euphemism as the article tells about the conflict between two ruling parties in Iraq. In a reality the question is of more serious and significant things, than simple differences in opinions.
It is possible to notice, that the word «divergences» is extremely popular in French press language. It is often used by journalists as, in our opinion, doesn’t possess clear, distinct semantics and veils an essence of affairs. For example, the expression «quelques petites divergences» in reality can mean irreparable disagreements between the two parties.
In the second example the author quotes the representative of the UNO, who tells about the hunger in the countries of Africa. Here the word "hunger" is replaced with a word "undereating" which to some extent veils true situation.
As K.Kerbra-Orechoni underlined , a distinctive feature of euphemism is the negative politeness caused by unwillingness to shock the interlocutor. On the one hand, euphemisms emphases one of the remedial strategies, inherent in negative politeness. On the other hand, euphemisms weaken possible threat, in relation to positive and negative features of the above-named people.
These two strategies of "correction" and "support" are used in speech in unequal degree, depending on the euphemisation area. Some euphemisms are motivated by exclusive wish not to offend the readers’ feelings, especially the feelings of those who are in embarrassing situation (invalids). In these two cases euphemism as a social figure, performs the regulating function. It simplifies interaction of the mass media and the public.
However when considering a politeness question in the narrowest sense, taking into consideration the authenticity parameter, it turns out, that all mass media euphemisms are not inherently polite figures, nevertheless remaining, valid in relation to other. If euphemisms are original and are also perceived as those (as in a case with the examples mentioning serious problems of physical inability), they make the effect of the real politeness. But often euphemism politeness is only imaginary. It occurs, when insincere, not original euphemism is perceived as original. Such situations are typical of the cases when the press tries to hide, for example, the fact of military intervention. Let’s consider two headings, taken from the newspaper Figaro, devoted to a theme of war with Algeria:
a. «Sud-Constantinois: dix-huit rebelles arrêtés suite aux opérations de maintien de l’ordre» (04.02.1957).
b. «Poursuite de la pacification dans les Aurès» (15.03.1957).
The colonial war here has turned into «the operations on order restoration» and into «order restoration». It is very difficult to estimate the Figaro journalist in sincerity, but his euphimisation results precisely from official sources, from the Fourth Republic authorities’ sources, do not wishing to frighten French citizens and avoiding condemnation of the UNO. Here the method of presentation through the fact "correction" gives way to the direct manipulation distracting the public attention, directed the fact on veiling of war clearing existence conscience of the authorities and attaching national opinion to the authorities opinion, thanks to arguments of the piece and an order. It all leads to the appearing of sample language as the society allows to put opinion the authorities above its own, using the arguments, seeming obvious and convincing. This modern mass media language euphimisation, in our opinion, is extremely popular. However this authority’s hypocrisy contradicts the concept of politeness.
We can give some more examples when mass media try to veil the facts of military intervention. For example:
«Les morts sont aussi nombreux lors de raids aériens et effectués par des drones. Ainsi, une attaque de missiles, à Abyan, au sud du Yémen en décembre 2009, avait causé la mort de 41 personnes, dont 14 femmes et 21 enfants. L'utilisation d'armes américaines a été confirmée et le département de la défense n'a pas commenté cette opération, ajoute le rapporteur» (Le Figaro du 13.06.2012).
This article is devoted to military intervention of the American army to Syria as a result of which civilians have suffered. But journalists use politically correct formulations «air spot-checks» and "operation". It also can be considered as a method of a reality presentation through "correction". Therefore a dedramatizated reality arises. It is possible to say, that the word "operation", instead of «military actions» is extremely popular in mass media language.
«Les opérations contre des écoles sont monnaie courante, ces établissements servant ensuite de bases militaires ou de centres de détention et de tortures» (Le Figaro du 10.06.2012).
The euphemism possesses its own specificity. It is shown both in its linguistic essence, and in the themes which are exposed to a thicket of others euphimisation, in the spheres of euphemisms usage, in types of language ways and means help to create them, in distinction of social euphimistic ways of expression estimations.
The euphemism as a way of indirect, circumlocutory and thus softening designation of a subject, property or action is correlative with other speech devices – with litotes, hyperbole, meiosis etc.
The process of euphimisation closely intertwines with nomination process – one of three fundamental processes forming speech activity of the person (the other two are predication and an estimation). The objects which, for the ethical, cultural, psychological and any other reason, are not named or hardly named, require euphemistic designation; nominations updating is dictated by the necessity to again and again veil or soften the essence what in a cultural society is considered inconvenient, indecent etc.
«Avec l'élection de François Hollande, l'ouverture du mariage aux personnes de même sexe semble imminente. Je propose, au lieu d'ouvrir le mariage, de le supprimer, ou plutôt de le confondre avec le pacte en un contrat universel ouvert à davantage de possibilités, mais qui ne transforme pas les célibataires en pigeons de la farce» (Le Monde du 02.06.2012).
In article where the example has been taken from, tells about legalisation unisex marriages to sexual minorities in France. The expression «homosexual marriages» can seem offensive; therefore the author of the article uses the softest and correct wording«marriages of same-gender people».
It seems, even the feeling of fault is erased, when abortion turns into the abbreviation «IVG» («interruption volontaire de grossesse» – abortion), transforming it to something the neutral, deprived of constraint feelings:
«L’IVG est désormais pratiquée en toute sécurité à la clinique mutualiste de Saint-Etienne. Près de 50 patientes sont prises en charge chaque mois dans le service du Dr Triollier».
Unlike the neutral lexicon, euphemisms are extremely sensitive to public estimations of those or other phenomena as "decent" and "indecent". It is connected with the historical variability status of euphemism: what seems successful euphimistic naming unit to one generation, can be regarded as the doubtless and inadmissible roughness demanding euphimistic replacement by next generations.
«La Toile s'est emparée du sujet et les commentaires fusent:" Waouh, apparemment, il n'y avait aucune personne de couleur dans le service marketing qui a validé ça ", ironise Ms Rodwell sur nicekicks.com.» (Le Monde du 16.05.2012).
This example is taken from the article devoted to a new collection of footwear "Adidas". According to many, it offends the national feelings of the Afro-Americans who were historically slaves. Thus, here softer wording which is not offending the feelings of people with dark colour of a skin is used.
As a result of pragmatical variability (euphemism migration for the limits of sociolect) a word loses its euphimistic effect, it becomes the direct naming unit of unpleasant object or phenomenon. The pragmatical effect of the statement varies accordingly: instead of calming, meliorative it turns into negatively influencing.
The euphemism does not always give rise to the consent. It cannot as well be a success, having seemed dishonest or impolite society, that is with the absence of some elementary norms of sincerity which regulate a harmony of a speech exchange. In that case when the polite wording of a euphemism is considered as tactless, it is rejected by the public. This situation occurs, when for example the honest politician with a little bit elaborate speech is suspected of dishonesty . So that happened during the debate devoted to problems of suburbs. Mari-Noel Lineman, the mayor of Anti, said the phrase:
«Les actes d’incivilité ne doivent plus être tolérés».
Having heard such a euphemism which became normal to denote ordinary cruelty, violence, the journalist of the newspaper VSD (04-07-1998) Eric Raul accused Lineman in using templates to hide the problem gravity. She tried to challenge this charge, having explained, that she used the term "incivility" on purpose to appeal to civic duty awareness (2005).
Tactlessness of the euphemism can be found out, if not completely sincere or insincere wording of a euphemism is critically treated by this or that commentator. This case concerns some above-named euphemisms which are no more used by journalists. Though journalists all the same sometimes resort to similar euphemisms, using inverted commas or supplementing them with their comments:
«Lavé de tout soupçon, le chômage s’appellera désormais« sous-emploi ». Au terme de chômage, le BIT préfère la notion de sous-emploi plus lisse et plus large. Cette nouvelle notion est ainsi déchargée et lavée d’un passé obscur et de ses connotations négatives» (F. Artigot, Le Temps du 16.10.1998).
Sometimes journalists choose resolute pamphleteer tone to brand this or that expression accepted in certain circles, and to show its false character: «Il est temps que l’on se donne les moyens de mettre fin aux prévisions nées de cette prétendue« globalisation» qui ne fait que cacher, sous un nom trompeur et séduisant, les dérives d’un libéralisme que l’on manipule dans l’intérêt illégitime de certains» (JEAN – Paul Carteron, Le Temps du 23. 06.1999).
If reference image of a euphemism is considered by many researchers the method of presentation speaker, in our opinion, undeservedly is ignored in many works devoted to this figure. As French mass media language shows, speakers represent corresponding speech behavior which stresses in three main features:
1. Conterminous polyphony (a case when the statement is made by voices inaequales, moving, however, in one direction).
First of all, euphimistic speaker proceeds from conterminous polyphony. His «I – say» is an echo of "They say". Thus, «la reconduction aux frontières» is the reformulization of official negotiations, used by Figaro journalist Claude Barro. The responsibility for this expression is dissolved in a mass of anonymous voices forming a speakers community, – judges, officials, politicians, journalists who try to adapt for the common feeling in relation to immigration. After all euphimistic expression «Les émigrés seront reconduits à la frontière», denotes, most likely, the rigid dispatch of the emigrants. Collective acceptance of this euphimistic expression, exaggerated by the public with the circulation into a press, simplifies its understanding, despite its a little taxonomical character. More precisely, the present «set expression» «la reconduction aux frontières» is represented as an invariable and ordinary phrase turn which transfers "anti-stereotype", characteristic for the press and technocrats’ sociolect: "anti-stereotype" of nonrigid of dispatch immigrant. This anti-stereotype has been created on the template basis about the cruelty of police and connected with the term "exile" which preserved in the memory of people. The anti-stereotype of euphimistic expressions is accurate as it allows to form thematic grids, as for example anti-template denoting invalids:
a. «Dix mille Français de petite taille» (Titre du Parisien du 20.10.1992);
b. «L’agence Cyrano s’est spécialisée dans les physiques particuliers (ou comme on les appelle communément: les nains, les géants, etc.»(Libération du 27.04.1993);
c. «La régie des transports stéphanois fait enfin un effort en direction des non-voyants: les formulaires d’abonnement existeront désormais en braille» (Le Progrès du 15.07.1998).
In our opinion, these euphemisms operate against the pejorative public voice connected with out-of-date estimated vision which leads to the usage the terms "gnome", "blind" etc. They change the stereotypes direction, replacing terms with more positive, more modern ones, as for example the terms are offered by authors in above given statements. Actually, to say "gnome" or "blind" means to identify a person, referring on imaginary norm. On the contrary, to use terms "small growth» or "visually impaired" means to put him on one level with the people of "high growth» and "able to see". But, it is a question of the statements having been made by French-speaking people within two or three decades, approved by dictionaries.
Fall together euphimistic statements polyphony varies depending of usage area. The previous euphemisms, concerning physical defects, embrace a coordination of modern society. Other euphemisms, such as «a collateral damage» instead of civil destructions, hit chord with small group of people, for example as in a case with military intervention to Serbia. It reduces introduction and can cause aversion reaction. But in most cases, the euphemism reflects collective statement.
Sometimes, euphimistic statement is an active doubling in press language. It quickly reacts on reference threat, for example, when it deals with uncontrolled emigration though it is limited to adumbration of the facts.
2. The speech which has lost its emotionality
It seems, euphimistic expression loses an emotionality in press language because of its impersonality. It is carried out by means of blocking emotive language functions and deleting speaker’s feelings in speech act. In that way, for euphemism are preferable descriptive terms instead of affective terms. To write «10000 Frenchmen of small growth» instead of «10000 dwarfs» or «with physiological features» instead of «with physical defects» means to operate with the classification based on degree or features. These euphimistic wordings weaken emotional reaction, pity or aversion, for example, connected with a word "dwarf".
The euphemism allows the speaker to hide the most different feelings, for example, feeling of national and religious hostility. Also euphemisms allow to hide the feeling of hostility to nowadays legalised unisex marriages. So one more favourite euphemism appeared in French mass media – «wedding for all», called to disseminate public constraint or to calm non- consent.
«M. Hollande a fait le mariage pour tous et, comme l’a remarqué avec beaucoup de finesse Léonard Trierweiler, c’est« la chose la plus normale »qu’ait faite son ex-beau-père. Il fallait faire ce mariage, ouvrir la famille, donner de l’air à tout ça» (Le Point du 04.05.2015).
Such euphemisms calm guilty conscience, transforming the facts into the neutral ones. This affective neutralisation amplifies, if it is accompanied by an interdiction for pejorative judgements. To say "intervention" instead of "war" means to make impartial statements in which speaker rejects his subjectivity.
3. The co-ordinated image
To a position problem of euphimistic speaker the ethos (representation of in speech) problem is added. Resorting to the euphemisms, the speaker in press language tries to show the co-ordinated picture of the person through the strategy set. Some of them are based on euphimistic formations. In the voice-frequency plan, it is a question of attitude demonstration, which rejecting the positive vision and addressing exclusively to a severe reality of news. To this relation is added clear vision which is characterised by the tendency on an establishment of peaceful relations. In respect of expression force, euphemisms formation shows a certain balance based on concealing of one’s own I. The favorable impression of prudence follows from this. The speaker underlines the reserved character of the statement. The other strategy connected with euphimistic ethos, is to present a euphemism in the positive light. It is a question of impressing favourably the public, thus expressing politeness. All these traits are found out in the example where naming the bombardment of Serbia by NATO "operation", the author of the article Eten Dubo adheres a neutral position, justifying newspaper the readers expectations which is considered extremely reserved. This journalist is ,most likely, inclined to see the facts in positive light, also modesty and politeness in relation to the readers who he protects from the too severe expressions are characteristic of him.
The speaker speech ethos is inseparably linked with sociocultural frameworks in which it is shown. Actually, in press language euphimistic speaker is, first of all, an echo of a collective voice. It is possible to tell, that he is a social group voice. When for example the journalist who has written article about military intervention to Serbia, speaks about «a collateral damage» instead of civil destructions. This cautious picture presented by it through this expression, is an example of collective ethos. It is thought, these are words of heads and official representatives of the NATO which point of view it has accepted. Or using D.Mengeno's terminology , «perspective figure», developed by the journalist in his article turns into «the impersonal scene». This scene bears a print of official negotiations where it is spoken about the pure government conscience, despite some errors made in the struggle against Serbia. And collective ethos is supposed to hide government errors. We suppose that similar remarks are applicable to the majority of the press euphemisms. The journalist shows his attitude either administratively correctly (as in an example with dispatch), or politically correctly (as in the example with the countries on a way to development), or socially correctly (in a case with people of small growth and visually impaired). Thus, he forms ethos, reacting to the advance set public models.
So, these examples come to the figurative frameworks of euphimistic statements: the problem situation generates the statement, dedramatisating reality under the pressure of a society. But besides this, the interest to considered examples consists in showing the pragmatical complex status of euphemisms in press language. On the one hand communicative configuration consists in the fact that euphemisms in the given examples are or journalists’ euphemisms, or cases when authors of articles quote someone, combining joining and detaching processes which derive from the interconnected system. On the other hand, communicative configuration consists in the fact that press language euphemisms are polyphonic, comprising the individualized author voice and other, more dim voices. At last, functional configuration consists in euphemisms division based on various reference parametres (the weakene renomination/revaluation), speech parametres (deprivation of emotions /equation), and dialogue parameters (correction/manipulation).
Thus, euphemisms function in modern French mass media language for a number of the pragmatical reasons:
1) from a politeness or political correctness principle:
«Les enquêteurs disposent d’un portrait-robot, diffusé dans tous les commissariats: un homme de type méditerranéen, entre 25 et 30 ans. Un homme qui parle français sans accent» (Le Nouveau Quotidien du 27.11.2014).
Here instead of «arabe» the journalist used «de type méditerranéen» because the word naming a concrete nationality, has a little negative colouring of perception in the subconsciousness of Frenchmen;
2) owing to a taboo principle (at formation of euphimistic replacements of direct items of the phenomena, for example, illnesses, death etc.):
a. «Il avait dû renoncer à commenter l'Euro 2012 pour des raisons de santé. Thierry Roland, voix de légende du football à la télévision, a disparu à l'âge de 74 ans, an annoncé samedi matin la direction de la chaîne M 6, mandatée par la famille» (Le Figaro du 15.06.2012).
b. «Leurs noms s'ajoutent à la liste macabre de ceux qui sont déjà tombés, caméras et appareils photo au poing", a déclaré l'organisation. Les autorités syriennes imposent de sévères restrictions aux médias, une mesure qui a poussé les "citoyens-journalistes" à assurer la couverture des violences » (Le Monde du 19.06.2012).
The latter example tells about question of mass destruction of the American journalists in Syria. But the journalist prefers "heavy" from reference points of view a word "were lost" to a word expression «have fallen with chambers in hands». It means, that journalists were kill, performing their work;
3) owning to principle regulative influence on the mass reader (creating euphemisms in political area):
Après onze jours de tension, la présidente du parti souhaite la fin d’une querelle «superfétatoire» à ses yeux. La brouille familiale qui secoue le Front national depuis onze jours prendra-t-elle fin cette semaine? (Le Figaro du 19.06.2014).
The article from a political heading of the French edition Le Figaro tells about serious crisis in the National front which has developed as a result the conflict between Marin Le Pen, leader left party, and Jean-Mari Le Pen, her father, the honourable president standing at the root of this political movement creation. However the author uses the words "quarrel" and «family quarrel», wishing to neutralise, dedramatise a real situationary.
The public should be well informed about a situation in economy, in politics and other spheres of life, but sometimes representatives of the power and mass media give the information in a way that does not to cause its strong, sometimes premature confusion and discontent.
The research carries out the analysis of pragmatical functioning of euphemisms in French mass media language. The basic pragmatical characteristics and the potential of euphemisms in French mass media language were revealed.
In our research we analised also a problem of ethos. We define ethos as an affective condition of the addressee which arises from the influence of any message and its specific features vary depending on some parametres.
Euphemisms possess huge manipulative potential which is used in French mass media language. Manipulative euphemisms either black out, hide a true state of affairs, or demobilise public opinion as unlike the direct nomination the softened, neutral formulation does not cause reciprocal irritation in the consciousness of the recipient.
So, being a sociophonic figure, there is a necessity of typical choice for euphemisms in mass media language. Is it necessary to put public calmness at the head of all and to encourage occurrence of euphemisms for the sake of it, risking thus to side with lie? Or is it worth, on the contrary, excluding euphemisms from media texts language for the sake of morals and ethics? In any case, euphemisms of mass media language meet a taboo and interdictions of the modern world.
Stepanov U.S. V poiskah pragmatiki [In searches of pragmatics]. // News of the USSR АS. – Мoscow. – 1981. – № 4. – Vol. 40. – Pp. 325-332.