Research article
Issue: № 1 (1), 2015


In the article the authors show the logical basis for the idea of J. Greenberg about Eurasian languages. A dominant position of this idea is the assertion that all the languages of Central and South America are included in the Amerind gens. The logic of fuzzy sets or fuzzy logic is examined as a logical foundation of J. Greenberg's concept. A linguistic variable "truth" takes a special place in this logic.

Eurasianism, as suggested by S.J. Boroday cannot be satisfied with historical and philosophical, political, and other issues in determining their own identity and demarcation of Western discourse [Boroday S.Y.]. Eurasian civilization has its own "history", its own "politics", its own "logic" because it has its own autonomous and auto-referential language at its disposal.

A kind of methodological and typological basis for the description of this language is the classification of Eurasian languages proposed by J. Greenberg [Greenberg J., 2005]. In 1998 J. Greenberg suggested to use, developed in the framework of  genetic linguistics, the method of mass comparison - comparing sets - for the analysis of African languages in the study of the features of Eurasian languages, including Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Korean-Japanese-Ainu, Gilyak, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, and Eskimo-Aleut.

The origins of the idea of Greenberg's Eurasian languages go back to 1958 when he suggested the existence of the Indo-Oceanic family, which includes non-Austronesian languages of Oceania and the Pacific Rim. Since 1956 Greenberg has confirmed that all the languages of Central and South America are included in the Amerind gens[1]. The publication in 1987, dedicated to the language of America, was represented by all the languages of the new division of the world into three phyla groups: Eskimo-Aleut, long known historical group, historically settled near the Bering bay; the second group - Na-Dene, the family, as defined in its central outlines by Sapir in 1913. After the death of Greenberg it was shown that this family belonged to Yenisei Ostyak, or Kelt in Central Asia. The third group, the allocation of which sparked a wave of criticism by linguists, absorbs all the other languages of Western gemiosphere and is called Amerind. Two books published at the end of life, "Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives" (2000, 2002), Greenberg returned to his idea for the first time stated in the 60-s of the last century, with respect to the Eurasian (Eurasiatic) linguistic phylum similar to Nostratic phylum, including Indo-European. In addition, he proclaims the closest relative of this branch Amerind, implying an even greater historical group, which includes most of the languages of the two large trans-gemispheric landmasses.

Pairing features of life landmasses and developing their language sets identified the need to develop a new method of language description, for which J. Greenberg proposed a method of mass comparison, which is now referred to as the multilateral comparison.

It is possible to identify the following grounds of the  method of comparison sets, in accordance with which the classification of Eurasian languages occurs and the fact of the existence of another - Eurasian -  language union is recognized:

■ group of languages is interconnected, if their basic vocabulary and pronunciation, morphemes found numerous similarities, forming a combined pattern that is common to the whole group;

■ although the method of multiple comparisons cannot identify every case of borrowing, it can identify many examples of borrowing, which is sufficient for establishing genetic relationships;

■ results achieve unconditional approximation;

■ there is no need to install repetitive sound correspondences or to reconstruct the ancestral form to identify the genetic relationship. On the contrary, it is impossible to establish such correspondence or reconstruct such forms as long as the genetic relationships have not been identified [Greenberg J., 2005].

At the heart of the developed method of typology of languages by J. Greenberg, in essence of geopolitical typology, is the logic of fuzzy sets, fuzzy logic and the theory of fuzzy sets.

Fuzzy logic, by definition, S.D. Shtovba [Shtovba S.D.] - are cases when the truth is seen as a linguistic variable that takes different values of type. Linguistic variable is defined by the five , where   is a  variable name;  - is a term set in which each element (term) is represented as a fuzzy set on a universal set ;   are syntax rules, often in the form of grammar to generate the name of the terms;   - semantic rules that define membership functions of fuzzy terms generated by syntactic rules .

A linguistic variable "truth" takes a special place in the fuzzy logic : in a a fuzzy logic truth is "fuzzify." The specificity of semantic category becomes more apparent in the text. As a basis of truth "fuzzify" in the text is the transformation of the Eurasian conceptual categories in semantic functions. This process is carried out in the process of transformation of epistemic forms of a word, locking the stable set of contexts functioning unit, its data volume and a corresponding amount of consciousness (brain activity), involved in the use of units for segmentation and continuation of information space (or space of communication)

Modified forms of coupling units in the Eurasian text of G.D. Grebenshchikov or conceptual dislocation violate static equilibrium between the content and the level of expression of the Russian language as one of the Eurasian languages: variety of  signs of the imaged object reality and a limited set of verbal interpretative possibilities of a native speaker. Such education is an optically active compound (a special type of asymmetric molecules) to the active site, promoting the text from the form of inanimate nature in the form of wildlife.

Inside the modified forms of coupling units active sites are identified that are identical to the logical way in research of G.G. Shpet [Shpet GG, 1994]. Active centers, being endowed with a system of cognitive functions, fixed point around which are constructed mental plane of historical knowledge. In these planes condensation occurs, seal the logical forms of thought or concepts [Sumarokova L.N., 1961], characterized by a certain level of historical development of intellectual abilities. Concept is a method of communication of the detailed content of thought [Gorsky D.P., Komlev N.G., 1953]. In the work of G.D. Grebenshchikov it is restored through a sequence of propositional connectives, which define a set of logical operations to ensure the formation of new statements in the fuzzy sets.

[1]  gens - the unit of systematics