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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.013

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Pllana G. THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT EXTRA-LINGUISTIC AND INTRA–LINGUISTIC FACTORS OF CONTEMPORARY ALBANIAN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY / G. Pllana, S. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 61—64. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/vliyanie-razlichnyx-vneyazykovyx-i-yazykovyx-faktorov-v-albanskoj-sovremennoj-texnicheskoj-terminologii/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.013
Pllana G. THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT EXTRA-LINGUISTIC AND INTRA–LINGUISTIC FACTORS OF CONTEMPORARY ALBANIAN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY / G. Pllana, S. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 61—64. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.013

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Плана Г.1, Плана С.2
1, 2Доктор филологических наук, Приштинский университет «Хасан Приштина», Приштина, Косово
ВЛИЯНИЕ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ВНЕЯЗЫКОВЫХ И ЯЗЫКОВЫХ ФАКТОРОВ В АЛБАНСКОЙ СОВРЕМЕННОЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ
Аннотация
История появления и развития технических областей в нашей стране проливает свет на отношения, которые были созданы с социальными факторами, показывая, какие факторы доминировали над их появлением и развитием. Так, например, в конце 19-го века ряд областей знаний были предвидены политическими, культурными и языковыми факторами, которые неразрывно связаны с усилиями нашей страны по повышению национальной осведомленности посредством роста образовательного и культурного уровня людей. Некоторые науки, по их основным специальностям, вероятно, были одним из тех факторов, которые позволят достичь этой цели. Другими факторами были открытие школ и разработка соответствующих учебников, для достижения этий целей посредством письменного языка. Поэтому первые области базовых знаний были воплощены в них, такие как математика, лингвистика, география.
Ключевые слова: Албанский язык, развитие терминологии, технические области, стандартизация терминологии.
Страницы: 61 - 64

Pllana G.1, Pllana S.2
1, 2PhD in Philology, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT EXTRA-LINGUISTIC AND INTRA–LINGUISTIC FACTORS OF CONTEMPORARY ALBANIAN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY
Abstract
The history of the appearance and development of technical fields in Kosova sheds light into the relationships entered with social factors, indicating what kinds of factors have prevailed in their appearance and growth. Thus, for instance, at the end of the 19th century, several knowledge fields were determined by political, cultural and linguistic factors. These were linked inextricably to the nation's efforts to arouse national consciousness through the development of the educational and cultural level of the people. Some sciences, through their particular fundamental fields, probably would be one of those factors that would accomplish this objective. Other influences were the opening of schools and the drafting of relevant textbooks, aiming to realize this purpose utilizing the written language. Therefore, the first fundamental knowledge fields became embodied with them, such as mathematics, linguistics, and geography.
Keywords: Albanian language, development of terminology, technical fields, standardization of terminology.
Pages: 61 - 64
Почта авторов / Author Email: gani.pllana[at]uni-pr.edu,

Introduction

Conceptual systems of knowledge fields in their genesis arose based on concepts, created directly and mainly for these areas. In the fields to follow, other areas have appeared and developed, one part based on the existing fields from their differentiation such as mathematics: algebra-geometry-stereometry; physics: mechanics-electricity-optics; and another part, based on human practical activity fields such as agronomy, veterinary, forestry etc.

The creation of basic areas of knowledge with the conceptual systems of these fields corresponded to the relevant terminology in the form of simple systems, however, the potential abilities for further development under the influence of all extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic factors led to the expansion of the bases of these fields and relevant terminologies as well as on the emergence and development of their fields and terminologies [2, P. 20].

The impact of different extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic factors

The stages the different extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic factors had passed through have, in a way, highlighted the development stages of these fields and the relevant terminologies they have passed. As far as cultural factors are concerned, they were embodied in the three primary stages of the development of the educational system of Kosovo: in the low, middle and high stage. These factors stipulated the levels achieved in the stages of the respective fields of knowledge and terminology. Thus, those fields and their respective terminologies have passed through three main stages until they reached their current state and level of their highest development [7, P. 40].

1) At the low level stage, which more or less included the end of the 19th century until the proclamation of the independence of the country (in 1912), the emergence and development of fundamental areas of knowledge with relevant terminology was conditioned by the spreading of low-primary Albanian schools  in most of the country. Subjects relating to basic fields of knowledge were introduced later on, including the ones up to the seventh class, such as arithmetic, geometry, language, algebra, and physics. Surely, textbooks were drafted, which for the first time, in addition to the common lexicon, contained the first special words. These terms constituted the basis of the scientific information of the relevant fields of knowledge. The merit of creating these special words (terms) was significant because they had been built without having any hereditary basis from the past. However, their creators leaned on their knowledge background, on conceptual systems learnt in leading schools abroad through the foreign languages they knew. They utilized all the creative potential of the Albanian language to create corresponding lexical units that responded to the respective concepts as well as by using the corresponding substance of the Albanian language to raise its common words to the level of special words, those of terms. One part of the special lexicon, built on these two bases, (on new creations and on existing language substance), lies upon the foundation of the terminology of the main areas of knowledge, such as: number, summation, division (arithmetic), angle, triangle, sides, circle, radius, geometry, noun, adjective, verb (linguistics), letter, root, power (algebra), force, size (physics), etc.

2) The middle-level stage includes mainly areas of knowledge with relevant terminologies, which developed in the framework of the creation of secondary education. This stage marks two main phenomena: the expansion of conceptual component units of the basic fields, which led to the increase in quantity and quality of lexical units (terms), and the creation of a range of new knowledge fields on different bases. Thus, new lexical units of basic fields, such as arithmetic, geometry, linguistics, were expanded and enriched with new units; while on the other hand, a range of different core areas evolved, such as chemistry, psychology, pedagogy, economics, trade, law, anatomy, physiology. The creation of these fields was conditioned by the new political, economic and cultural conditions in the country, as well as the need to introduce them in schools as separate teaching disciplines for the preparation of lower and middle-level specialists in the branches of education, economy, medicine, agriculture, etc.

At this stage, two large fields of knowledge may be arranged: fields related to theory and fields related to practical activity. Both fields began to be differentiated later in other fields, in which both theoretical (theory) and the practical aspects get closely linked with one another, such as, for example, science and technique (technology) in the fields of chemistry, agronomy, veterinary, etc.

3) The high-level stage (in the field of science and technique (technology).) It is conditioned by the levels of the modern development of society. Economic factors (admission of new technologies) and cultural factors (higher education, contacts with the world through foreign literature) are of great impact.

Expressions of terminology reflected in the philological dictionaries in Albanian

The meanings of terms based on common word meanings are reflected in Albanian explanatory dictionaries in the semantic structures of their words. Studying these meanings of words, when they appear as terms such as foot (word) and foot (term) are being singled out as such when used in the relevant field of knowledge, enables to examine this lexical intermediate stratification in relation to the general lexicon, with other groups of terminology lexicon, as well as cases of functioning in the teaching practice of each field [2, P. 21].

An examination of the various sets of terms in the explanatory dictionaries reveals that the relationships of the technical terminology lexicon with the general language from one vocabulary to another, (from the dictionary of the Albanian language (Tirana, 1954) to the present-day Albanian language dictionary (Tirana, 1980)), have come to be more complicated from the semantic-lexical developments part, while sometimes even better differentiated between them. The phenomenon of complexity relates to the addition of new terminological meanings (concepts), linked after a sign, which has to do with the phenomenon of terminology, where the latter also comes with a negative side (concepts are added but signs remain the same). But even with the addition of the new terms themselves, created by the way of term forming, where signs are added along with concepts, actually enriching terminological systems. With regard to the development of these two processes in each terminology, it should be noted that the terminology process prevailed before the formation of new terms by the origin path, where in the latter the formation of new terms is occasionally inhibited due to the over separation from existing signs of expression as new concepts in the terminology process, as mentioned above, such as finger, pocket, head, tooth, etc. It can be noted, however, that since the 1954 Glossary, terminology has gone along with the formation of new terms, and based on this circumstance, analyses can be made of these two processes, relying on the entire subject matter of Albanian dictionaries. Here, it should be recognized that viewed from the terminology standpoint, the “Dictionary of the 1980s” serves as the basis of analysis for technical terms also. It serves to break down the semantic structure of each word in more detail revealing more clearly its terminological meanings separately, as well as cases of switching from one meaning to another (from the common to the terminological sense and vice versa). Therefore, this Dictionary served as the basis for an extensive analysis of the relationships that are established between common words of terms and terms created on the basis of their meaning [7, P. 109].

Terminology arrangement in Kosovo

In Kosovo, the work in the field of Albanian terminology carried out within the framework of the Federation of Yugoslavia was limited mostly in the reproduction of terminological dictionaries, drafted in Albania, and supplemented by terms from the Serbian language.

After the 80s, besides the drafting of terminology dictionaries, not only of the extensive ones but also of the narrow ones, a rapid activity began in order of generalizing the achieved work experience concerning drafting of numerous dictionaries. This was initially concretized in the treatment of a series of theoretical problems in articles and scientific works. And later, academic issues, the general and particular ones, were reflected in monographic works. The terminology of knowledge fields such as the one of economics, mechanics, medicine, geography, and recently also the field of agronomy, became the subject of study [7, P. 230].

It needs to be emphasized that in the focus of the study, terminologists presented problems mainly of the terminology of the extensive fields within the Albanian language framework. It can be asserted that to date no study on Albanian terminology has been undertaken for any particular field of knowledge in the broadly wide-ranging approach with any foreign language. Therefore, it would be necessary to address a narrow field of knowledge, especially of that field, which is of special interest in regard of its problematic point of view, taking into account its level of approach with a foreign language, which serves as a language standardization sample. As it is admitted up to date, the first place among these languages is the English language, which nowadays has gained the right of a language spread widely and internationally all over the world. Undoubtedly in this occasion, the likeness terminology of this language with one of the Albanian terminologies (or its terminology in general) would shed some light on many problems of Albanian terminology. In particular, the likeness domain with the English language could solve the issues concerning foreign terms and the terms translated so far.

Up to this date, in the language literature of Albanian, as far as terminology lexicons problems concern, the terminology of mechanics has become a prime subject of study in monographic work, presented as a topic of dissertation, as well as being elaborated in many scientific articles. This terminology is elaborated as a lexicon of specific subfields in technical standards and is also presented in separate fragments in technical magazines.

The processing standards of terminology elaboration

The implementation standard issues of technical terminology should be resolved by relating to two main semantic phenomena, such as synonymy and polysemy (homonymy) [1, P. 33]. Both these semantic phenomena in the field of technical terminology should be considered in terms of the features of their appearance, unlike the general language. As far as its appearing characteristics as a semantic phenomenon in terminology, the synonyms appear as doublet (pair or series of units that mark the same concept as: pre-act- opposite link — feedback), or as pseudo-synonym (pair or series of units conceptually different, but accepted as the same: density), while polysemy only does it as a homonym (comparing the same units as forms, but conceptually distant: wing (crane) → wing (airplane).

When compiling technical terminologies, in order to establish a uniform standard, the aim is to evade synonyms and refract the homonymy by creating for each homonymous unit, accordingly, a new sign, such as: saw1 (the tool) and saw2 (sawing-machine). These processes are prime, especially when working on a textbook compilation, a compilation of bilingual dictionaries, etc., while new creations load the terminology with synonyms (doublet), turning the process of synonyms into a very harmful phenomenon. Attempting to minimize polysemy (homonymy) leads to the creation of successful, but often also unsuccessful terms, by increasing the volume load of linguistic signs. However, synonymy as well as homonymy lie in the choice and re-evaluation of existing terms, to enter better, more appropriate terms that correspond to the respective concepts.

The standard and standardization of Albanian technical terminology

The standard and the standardization of technical terminology at the present time, including this field herein, should be addressed in the context of the new developments Kosova is going through [7, P. 300]:

Inclusion of technical terminology within the network of links of all terminologies of the various fields of knowledge both nationally and neighboring countries (where Albanian is native language — in Albania and Kosovo, and as the second official language — in Macedonia) and internationally, in relation to other terminologies, in particular large countries, and first of all with English terminology, which serves as a model for international standardization.

Elaboration of terminology in the range of multiplication of different fields of knowledge, when conceived as a subsystem on its own in the context of the complete lexical system of language, constitutes a huge mass of unlimited units (word terms, phraseology terms and terminology nomenclature), but limited in a certain timely cut, marking the concepts of fields of human knowledge.

Elaboration of terminology and its standard in terms may lead the Albanian language to obtain the status of an EU language in the near future with the possible entry of Albania in the European international body. Concerning the Albanian terminology, a new orientation will be given to the assessment and re-evaluation of the standard. In particular of the foreign terms in Albanian, its position toward them, their country in relation to the translated terms in Albanian language that compete with them, adapting in that regard a more liberalized language policy than before.

Conclusion

The solving of standardization issues, of the setting of standard terms and normative ones should be carried out on the basis of strict scientific principles and criteria of the terminology as a science and practical activity, as are primarily the requirements for accuracy and clarity of terms, the setting of equivalent term — concept and vice versa to create for each knowledge field a terminological system that responds adequately to the relevant conceptual system. Upon this basic issues of the absolute synonymy (binaries) which overload the terminology need to be resolved also, and issues of the relative synonymy (of the quasi-synonyms and pseudo-synonyms), creating confusion in scientific and technical communication and reduce its quality.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Duro A. Termi the fjala në gjuhën shqipe /Duro, A. – Tiranë, 2009, – 33p, – 42p.
  2. Duro A. Terminologjia si sistem /Duro A. – Tiranë, 2002, – 20p, – 21p.
  3. Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe, – Tiranë, 1954
  4. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe, – Tiranë, 1980
  5. Fjalor i termave themelorë të mekanikës, – Tiranë, 2002
  6. Pllana G. A conceptual connections on a word and term level in the terminology of Theoretical Mechanics (in Albanian and English) trans&MOTOAUTO’12 20th International scientific and technical Conference on transport, road-building, agricultural, hoisting & hauling and military technics and technologies 27-29.06.2012 / Pllana, G., Pllana, S. – Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, 2012
  7. Pllana G. Formimi i terminologjisë teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm / Pllana G. – Tiranë, 2017, –40p, –109p, –230p, –300p.
  8. Pllana S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze / Pllana S. – Tiranë, 2014, –31p, –52p.
  9. Pllana S. Vëzhgime mbi terminologjinë e fushës së “Mekanikës së zbatuar në makina si sistem leksikor-konceptor, ASHSH dhe ASHAK “Gjendja dhe zhvillimi i terminologjisë shqipe probleme dhe detyra”, Konferencë shkencore / Pllana S. – Tiranë, 2009
  10. Pllana S. Studies undertaken in the field of terms and coverage mechanics as its respective glossary of the Albanian language, trans&MOTOAUTO’12 20th International scientific and technical Conference on transport, road-building, agricultural, hoisting & hauling and military technics and technologies 27-29.06.2012 / Pllana S., Pllana G. – Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, 2012
  11. Wüster E. Internationale Sprachnormung in der Technik / Wüster E. – UDI, Berlin, 1931
  12. Wüster E. Machine tool / Wüster E. – 1968

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Duro A. Termi the fjala në gjuhën shqipe [The term and the word in the Albanian language] /Duro, A. – Tirana, 2009, – 33p, – 42p. [In Albanian]
  2. Duro A. Terminologjia si sistem [Terminology as a system] /Duro A. – Tirana, 2002, – 20p, – 21p. [In Albanian]
  3. Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Albanian Language Dictionary], – Tirana, 1954 [In Albanian]
  4. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Today’s Albanian Language Dictionary], – Tirana, 1980 [In Albanian]
  5. Fjalor i termave themelorë të mekanikës [Basic Mechanics Terms Dictionary], – Tirana, 2002 [In Albanian]
  6. Pllana G. A conceptual connections on a word and term level in the terminology of Theoretical Mechanics (in Albanian and English) trans&MOTOAUTO’12 20th International scientific and technical Conference on transport, road-building, agricultural, hoisting & hauling and military technics and technologies 27-29.06.2012 / Pllana, G., Pllana, S. – Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, 2012
  7. Pllana G. Formimi i terminologjisë teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm [The formation of Albanian technical terminology based on general vocabulary] / Pllana G. – Tirana, 2017, –40p, –109p, –230p, –300p. [In Albanian]
  8. Pllana S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze [The formation of Albanian technical terminology based on general vocabulary] / Pllana S. – Tirana, 2014, –31p, –52p. [In Albanian]
  9. Pllana S. Vëzhgime mbi terminologjinë e fushës së “Mekanikës së zbatuar në makina si sistem leksikor-konceptor [Observations on the terminology of the field of “Mechanics applied to machines as a lexical-conceptual system ], ASHSH dhe ASHAK “Gjendja dhe zhvillimi i terminologjisë shqipe probleme dhe detyra”, Konferencë shkencore [The Academy of Sciences of Albania (ASA) and Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosovo in “Conditions and the Development of Albanian Terminology Problems and Tasks”, Scientific Conference] / Pllana S. – Tiranë, 2009 [In Albanian]
  10. Pllana S. Studies undertaken in the field of terms and coverage mechanics as its respective glossary of the Albanian language, trans&MOTOAUTO’12 20th International scientific and technical Conference on transport, road-building, agricultural, hoisting & hauling and military technics and technologies 27-29.06.2012 / Pllana S., Pllana G. – Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, 2012
  11. Wüster E. Internationale Sprachnormung in der Technik [International language standardization in technology] / Wüster E. – UDI, Berlin, 1931 [In German]
  12. Wüster E. Machine tool / Wüster E. – 1968

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