Art#: 4025


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Targyn S. SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF THE DEPENDENT TAXIS OF THE TUVAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES [REVIEW] / S. Targyn // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2018. — № 4 (16). — С. 7—8. — URL: (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:10.18454/RULB.2018.16.4.2
Targyn S. SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF THE DEPENDENT TAXIS OF THE TUVAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES [REVIEW] / S. Targyn // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2018. — № 4 (16). — С. 7—8. doi:10.18454/RULB.2018.16.4.2


Таргын Ш.1
1Доцент, кандидат филологических наук, Тувинский государственный университет
В статье рассмотрены семантические аспекты зависимого таксиса тувинского и английского языка с целью выявления их схожих и различительных черт в рассматриваемых языках. В результате исследования доказано, что семантические аспекты зависимого таксиса в рассматриваемых языках имеют схожие значения в следующем плане: одновременность, следование и предшествование. Различительными же являются их морфологическая база в плане оформления в виде высказываний, в тувинском языке их основными маркерами являются разные неличные формы глагола, в английском языке как неличные, так и личные формы глагола.
Ключевые слова: семантические аспекты, таксис, зависимый таксис, тувинский язык, английский язык, одновременность, следование, предшествование.
Страницы: 7 - 8

Targyn S.1
1Associate Professor, PhD in Philology, Tuvan State University
The article deals with the semantic aspects of the dependent taxis of the Tuvan and English language with the purpose of revealing their similar and distinctive features in the languages in question. As a result of the research it was proved that the semantic aspects of dependent taxis in the languages in question have similar meanings in the following plan: simultaneity, posteriority and precedence. Distinctive features are their morphological base in terms of structure in the form of statements, in the Tuvan language their main markers are different non-finite forms of the verb, in English both non-finite and finite forms of the verb.
Keywords: semantic aspects, taxis, dependent taxis, Tuvan, English, simultaneity, posteriority, precedence.
Pages: 7 - 8
Почта авторов / Author Email:


From the point of view of functional grammar, the category of taxis is regarded as a system of temporary relations between actions [1, P.71].

In modern English in the works of Russian researchers, taxis is considered mainly as a grammatical category, but there are also works that represent taxis as a functional-semantic, syntactic or semantic-syntactic category. In English, ‘taxis’ is regarded as a relative tense, sequence of tense, ‘relative time’, sequence of Tenses [2, P.113].

The study of taxis in Turkic languages ​​and its categorical status (under its reconstruction, own name "taxis") is just beginning (D.G. Tumasheva, M.S. Azizova, L. Johanson, D.M. Nasilov, I.A. Nevskaya, Kh.F. Ishakova, L.A. Shamina, and others) [3, P.69].

Following A.V. Bondarko, we consider dependent taxis as a temporary relationship between actions, of which one is the principal, and the other dependent, which is realized within the integral period of speech [3, P.69].

The semantics of the dependent taxis are distinguished as precedence, simultaneity and posteriority.


The specific tasks posed in this study determined the choice of descriptive and comparative methods, methods of interviewing and questioning of native speakers. The study of taxis was carried out on the basis of synchronic analysis of linguistic material; a structurally-semantic method and a method for modeling syntactic structures were also used. We used the onomasiological approach ‘from content to form’, and in this connection the methods of functional-semantic, contextual-situational and typological analysis and the traditional approach ‘from form to content’ are widely used in the work.


The study of semantic aspects of taxis ​​is a study of the features of the expression of the simultaneity/diversity relationship arising in polypredicative syntactic constructions. The emphasis, however, is on the fact that it is possible to qualify such relations as a manifestation of a special category different from the categories of time and aspect. This category was tried in morphology to be associated with separate grammatical forms (for example, a perfect or gerund) or sought to give it a syntactic rationale and was then defined as situational ‘relativistic’ categorial interaction, etc.

At the same time, it was the categorical nature of these relations that was recognized by far not all, which was, to a large extent, facilitated by the parallel studies in aspectology, syntax and typology. Different initial theoretical attitudes adopted in various schools and directions introduced additional disagreements in the interpretation of temporary relations in the polydispaticative complexes. The dominant position in their interpretation over time was taken by the aspectological approach, since it was a question of the correlation of actions, naturally represented by a verbal word form. Aspectual characteristic of predicates has therefore become traditional for research, which discussed the chronological sequence of actions. But, unfortunately, the terminological disagreement persisted for a long time, and for the designation of the same phenomenon used a variety of names: ‘relative time’, ‘relational time’, ‘temporal correlation’, ‘correlative use of times’, ‘sequence of times’, ‘The category of simultaneity/ prematurity’, and so on.

It should be noted that at that time, linguistics was dominated by a structural approach to the study of various aspects of language, when each fact was considered separately, on different grounds and from different positions, in ‘external’ form and not systematically. However, in parallel to the structural approach, the functional approach ‘oriented on studying and describing the regularities of the functioning of grammatical units in interaction with elements of different linguistic levels participating in the transmission of the meaning of the utterance’ [1, P.5] also developed, and then the prototypical semantic aspects ​​of the simultaneity, precedence, as members of a single category of temporal correlation, as well as temporal conditioning within the same sentence.

The great merit of R. Jakobson was that he perceived this observable in different languages ​​as a single specific phenomenon and terminologically confirmed it by introducing into the linguistic circulation of the Greek word for "taxis", which replaced the previously proposed Bloomfield and Whorf terms ‘order’ and ‘mode’ [4].

The main provisions of the concept of R. Jacobson, in the context of which a new category was considered, became ‘two major differences between: 1) the very message and theme of the message (English speech and narrate); 2) the fact itself and any of its participants (English event and participant), whether it be an agent or an object of action. Accordingly, the following four phenomena are distinguished: ‘the fact reported, the fact of the message, the participant of the fact reported and the participant of the fact of the message, whether it is the sender or the addressee’ [4, P. 99]. Class-categorized categories received another binary interpretation: depending on whether they describe the reported fact and/ or its participants in relation to either the fact of the message or its participants or whatever it is (= not the scrambler) [4, P.100].

As a result, R.O. Jacobson obtained a classification of all categories of verb according to four characteristics of the ‘designator/ connector; scanner / non-scrambler’. Taxis has been defined as a connector and at the same time as a category that ‘characterizes the fact reported with respect to another reported fact and without reference to the fact of the message’ [4, P. 101]. In the same work, following Bloomfield and Whorf, Jakobson singled out two types of taxis: dependent and independent.

The dependent taxis was characterized as expressing different attitudes (simultaneity, precedence, interruption, ceding connection, etc.) to an independent verb. In the independent taxis, these characteristics were absent. In the opinion of R. Jacobson, with a dependent taxis, the category of time itself acts as a taxis, and therefore ‘the ratio of past and present time turns into an opposition, which, using the terminology of Whorf, can be called the opposition of the interval and the contact between two reported facts’.


Investigation of the semantic aspect of dependent taxis has shown that for the characterization of the basic taxis semantics: both precedence, and simultaneity, and posteriority, it is important to consider one parameter that takes three semantic aspects. In the case of taxis of precedence and taxis of posteriority there are three meanings: contact, interrupt, remote, which characterize all theoretically possible consequences of two situations relative to each other on the chronological axis; in the case of taxis of simultaneity — these semantic aspects ​​characterize all theoretically possible fulfillment of two situations of one period of time.

The means of expressing of dependent taxis in Tuvan language are non-finite forms: gerund, participle and case constructions, verbal names, process names; their English equivalents are various verbal finite and non-finite forms; a systematic study of the means of expressing dependent taxis in Tuvan and English has shown that in both languages ​​the same form, design or time specifier can represent the same or different semantic aspects of dependent taxis.


The ‘degree of taxisness’ (the term of V. Nedyalkov) of the Tuvan language is significantly higher than in English, since it is known that in the Turkic languages, in particular in the Tuvan language, non-finite forms are the ‘kernel’ of speech; they are the main morphological basis of the functional-semantic category of dependent taxis. In the English speech, taxis relations are used mainly in narratives.

The linguistic material of typologically different languages ​​shows that in the semantics of dependent taxis there are universal components.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Бондарко А.В. Функциональная грамматика/ А.В. Бондарко. – Л.: Наука, 1984. – 225 с.
  2. Бондарко А.В. Теория функциональной грамматики/ А.В. Бондарко. – М.: УРСС, 2001. – 315 с.
  3. Салчак (Таргын) Ш.Х. Зависимый таксис в тувинском языке в сопоставлении с английским/ Ш.Х. Салчак (Таргын). – Москва, 2006. – 25 с.
  4. Jakobson R. Shifters, verbal categories and the Russian verb/ R. Jakobson. – Harvard University, 1957. – 358 pp.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Bondarko A.V. Funksional’naya grammatika [Functional grammar] / A.V. Bondarko. – L: Nauka. 1984. – P. 225 [in Russian]
  2. Bondarko A.V. Teoriya funksional’noi grammatiki [Theory of functional grammar] / A.V. Bondarko. – M: URSS. 2001. – P. 315 [in Russian]
  3. Salchak (Targyn) Sh.Kh. Zavisimyi taksis v tuvinskom iazyke v sopostavlenii s angliyskim [Dependent taxis in the Tuvan language in comparison with the English language] / Sh.Kh. Salchak (Targyn). – Moscow. 2006. – P. 25 [in Russian]
  4. Jakobson R. Shifters, verbal categories and the Russian verb/ R. Jakobson. – Harvard University, 1957. – 358 pp.

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