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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.3

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Bagirzade Z.M. RHETORIC, LINGUISTICS AND STYLISTICS [REVIEW] / Z.M. Bagirzade // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 41—43. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/ritorika-lingvistika-i-stilistika-obzor/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.3
Bagirzade Z.M. RHETORIC, LINGUISTICS AND STYLISTICS [REVIEW] / Z.M. Bagirzade // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 41—43. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.3

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Багирзаде З.М.1
1диссертант , Институт Языкознания НАНА
РИТОРИКА, ЛИНГВИСТИКА И СТИЛИСТИКА [ОБЗОР]
Аннотация
Важные моменты отношений между риторикой, лингвистикой и стилистикой, особенно когнитивной стилистикой, привлекают внимание исследователей 21-го века и нуждаются в исследованиях в этом направлении. Существует тесная связь между риторикой, лингвистикой и стилистикой. Стилистику, иногда называемую лингвистической наукой, также называют преемником риторики. Если так сказать, риторические исследования изучают риторические формы в литературных текстах. Современная стилистика исследует различные типы речи, стили. Стилистика часто сопровождается лингвистическими девиациями. Риторика является важным мостом на пути к когнитивной лингвистике. Риторика тесно связана с познанием, потому что она больше ориентирована на интеллектуальные цели. Стилистика считается наиболее серьезной областью общего языкознания, которая выглядит как живая и динамичная сущность. Когниция приводит к ясности отношений между риторикой, лингвистикой и стилистикой. Следовательно, риторика, лингвистика и стилистика тесно взаимосвязаны.
Ключевые слова: риторика, когнитивная стилистика, лингвистика, девиация, красноречие, динамичная сущность.
Страницы: 41 - 43

Bagirzade Z.M.1
1dissertant , Institute of Linguistics of ANAS
RHETORIC, LINGUISTICS AND STYLISTICS [REVIEW]
Abstract
Important aspects of the relationship between rhetoric, linguistics and stylistics, especially cognitive stylistics, attract the attention of researchers of the 21st century and need research in this direction. There is a close connection between rhetoric, linguistics and stylistics. Stylistics, sometimes called linguistic science, is also called the successor of rhetoric. So to say, rhetorical studies investigate rhetorical forms in literary texts. Modern style explores different types of speech, styles. Stylistics also holds the linguistic deviations. Rhetoric is an important bridge to cognitive linguistics. Rhetoric is closely associated with cognition, because it is more oriented towards intellectual goals. Stylistics is considered the most serious area of general linguistics, which looks like a living and dynamic entity. Cognition leads to clarity of relations between rhetoric, linguistics and stylistics. Consequently, rhetoric, linguistics and style are closely interrelated.
Keywords: rhetoric, cognitive stylistics, linguistics, deviation, eloquence, dynamic essence.
Pages: 41 - 43
Почта авторов / Author Email: zuleyxa@mail.ru

Introduction

Rhetoric is addressed to the end of the intellectual taste through language ability. Geoffrey Finch claims that stylistics is a field of new linguistics, specific to the analysis of literary styles [1, p.189]. The word «stylistics» that appeared in the nineteenth century began to be widely used only in the early twentieth century. The definition of the boundaries of stylistics, its relation to rhetoric has been closely linked to linguistic researches, i.e. stylistics based on rhetoric has emerged simultaneously with the emergence of new linguistics and has been exposed to some of its technical capabilities [2, p.187].

Discussion

Some scholars support such an idea that while rhetoric is a whole, the eloquence presents a part of integrity. Therefore, the eloquence is a prototype feature of a lexical paragraph, a sentence, and a text producer. They also note that eloquence refers to the form and lexical point of the lexicon, whereas rhetoric is merely meaning. From what we can say, many linguists and rhetoriciens have distinguished stylistics from the rhetoric [3, p.95].

Some researchers consider stylistics as a branch of linguistic science. Stylistics is a field of theoretical linguistics, as it stands next to the syntactic theory. In the study of the style of literary texts, we can see that linguistic styling is enhanced by second-class literary research, such as history and social sciences. Historical relations between stylistics and linguistics through some literary critics have led to the mixing of the two sciences. But the matter was not over. Soon, the researchers opposed the difference between these two branches of science and their orientation. They have suggested that stylistics simultaneously uses the description and analysis to learn the quality of what is being said, and linguistics learns what is said.

Results

The literal meaning of the word "rhetoric" means "accurate, straightforward and expressive". In Western languages (in French), the word "rhetoric" is used in the sense of "science", and eloquency is used in sense of "abilities" [4, p. 25-26]. As a capability, rhetoric is literally used in a figurative, correct, in place and at the right time. In other words, it is sufficient and timely to express thoughts in an oral or written form [5, p.369-393]. Rhetoric is addressed to the end of intellectual pleasure through language ability [6, p.81]. The eloquence is an art of speech and influence, and science of persuasion (Ėloquence est art de bien dire, science de toucher et de persuader ). Plato exposes contemporary rhetoric, or eloquence as false discourses of knowledge.  He characterizes it as a form of deceptive flattery (flatter) and to cheat (tromper). Cicero defines rhetoric as the art of speaking with abundance and ornament. [4, p. 25].

Stylistics is a linguistic introduction to understanding the text. As it is known, the founder of the Geneva Linguistic School, Ferdinand de Saussure, laid the foundation for new linguistic traditions and has solved number of conundrums. Let's look at some of these problems: first, the language is a regular system; it is a set of interconnected relationships with signs; the latter consists of a form of sign (significant) which denotes a mean (signifie) of complexity; thirdly, it is characterized by two parameters of linguistic research: 1) synchronic research.  İn this case, the state of the language taken at a certain stage of historical development is investigated. This includes the current state of the language, the notion of equation, the lexical, grammatical, and phonetic elements of the language [7, 244]; 2) diachronic research. It takes the structural and grammatical system of the language in historical aspect and explores the different stages of historical periods. The diachronic aspect does not coincide with any other language phenomena in the his­torical sequence of each language event. It is language events that are not pre­served in linguistic consciousness of speech societies [8, p. 16]. It should be noted that for the first time, Ferdinand de Saussure proposed the method of diachronic research as inefficient one and instead of this he proposed a synchronous method [9, p. 203].

Determination of the boundaries of stylistics was closely linked to linguistic investigations. Thus, the formation of stylistics coincides with the emergence of new linguistics. This science has some technical capabilities of linguistics [10, p.187].

Stylistics has found almost the subject of his search in transformational theory and linguistic values. This understanding and practice help to clarify stylistic research in terms of method and content. I. Kant criticized the rhetoric (ars oratoria) as "deceptive art" that deprived human beings of the clear judgments by saying good words in the "Criticism of Pure Cognition". Kant's rhetoric was called the " mechanism of persuasion " [11, p.8, 10].

It should be noted that rhetoric is related with semantics of stylistics. At the same time “rhetorical analysis using modern rhetoric is often combined with literary criticism, text linguistics, semiotics, social description, stylistics, reader-response criticism, discourse analysis, and/or speech act theory” (13, p. 36).

Conclusion

Stylistics usually explores styles in the synchronic aspect, and rhetoric treats language as a fixed phenomenon. Both rhetoric and stylistics have the level of information and aesthetic level. H.Suhami names the discipline that describes figures of speech as rhetoric [13, p.11]. As you can see, rhetoric, linguistics and stylistics are closely interconnected. Even some authors believe that rhetoric has lost its practical significance that was in ancient times. That is, in the modern era, rhetoric in the preparation of politicians, orators, lawyers and preachers is not as widely used as in ancient Rome. The rhetoric has already compromised the stylistic theories that use sophisticated methods.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Geoffrey F. Linguistic Terms and Concepts. Palgrave, New York, 2000, 251 p.
  2. Fowler R. A Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms. London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., second ed., 1987, 262 p.
  3. Abdul–Raof Hussein. Arabic rhetoric: a pragmatic analysis. New York: Routledge, 2006, 316 p.
  4. Fumaroli M. L’âge de l’éloquence : rhétorique et “res literaria” de la Renaissance au seuil de l’epoque classique. Genève: Librairie Droz, 2002, 882 p.
  5. Vibert A. Fontanier : autour et au dela. La Rhétorique dans le premier tiers du XIX siècle. Revue d’histoire littéraire de la France, № 2, 2005, pp. 369 -393.
  6. De Quincey T., Burwick F., Potter D. Selected Esseys on Rhetoric. Carbondale and Edwardsville: SIU Press, 2010, 320 p.
  7. 7. Adilov M. İ., Verdiyeva Z. N., Ağayeva F. M. İzahlı dilçilik terminləri. Bakı: Maarif, 1989.
  8. Eric E. Linguistic Stylistics. Paris: Mouton, 1973, 364 p.
  9. Dilçilik ensiklopediyası. I cild, Bakı: Mütərcim, 2006, 516 p.
  10. Koseriu E. Ümumi dilçiliyə giriş. Bakı: B S U, 2006, 252 p.
  11. Plett H. Literary Rhetoric: Concepts–Structures–Analyses. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2010, 232 p.
  12. Tim MacBride. Preaching the New Testament as Rhetoric: The Promise of Rhetorical Criticism for Expository Preaching. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014, 274 p.
  13. Suhamy H. Les figures de style. Paris: Dépôt légale, 13e edition, 2016, 128 p.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Geoffrey F. Linguistic Terms and Concepts. Palgrave, New York, 2000, 251 p.
  2. Fowler R. A Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms. London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., second ed., 1987, 262 p.
  3. Abdul –Raof Hussein. Arabic rhetoric: a pragmatic analysis. New York: Routledge, 2006, 316 p.
  4. Fumaroli M. L’âge de l’éloquence : rhétorique et “res literaria” de la Renaissance au seuil de l’epoque classique [ The age of eloquence: rhetoric and "res literaria" of the Renaissance on the threshold of classical times]. Genève: Librairie Droz, 2002, 882 p. [in French]
  5. Vibert A. Fontanier : autour et au dela. La Rhétorique dans le premier tiers du XIX siècle [Fontanier: around and beyond. Rhetoric in the first third of the nineteenth century]. Revue d’histoire littéraire de la France, № 2, 2005, pp. 369 -393. [in French]
  6. De Quincey T., Burwick F., Potter D. Selected Esseys on Rhetoric. Carbondale and Edwardsville: SIU Press, 2010, 320 p.
  7. Adilov M. I., Verdiyeva Z. N., Agayeva F. M. Izahli dilchilik terminleri [Explanatory Dictionary of Linguistic Terms]. Baku: Maarif, 1989, 364 p. [In Azerbaijani]
  8. Eric E. Linguistic Stylistics. Paris: Mouton, 1973, 179 p.
  9. Dilchilik ensiklopediyasi. I cild [Encyclopedia of Linguistics], Baku: Muterjim, 2006, 516 p. [In Azerbaijani]
  10. Koseriu E. Umumi dilchiliye girish [Introduction to General Linguistics]. Baku: B S U, 2006, 252 p. [In Azerbaijani]
  11. Plett H. Literary Rhetoric: Concepts–Structures–Analyses. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2010, 232 p.
  12. Tim MacBride. Preaching the New Testament as Rhetoric: The Promise of Rhetorical Criticism for Expository Preaching. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014, 274 p.
  13. Suhamy H. Les figures de style [The figures of style]. Paris: Dépôt légale, 13e edition, 2016, 128 p. [in French]

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