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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.1

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Sergienko D.V. CORRECT PLACEMENT OF LOGICAL STRESS IN A SENTENCE WITH A REVERSE WORDS ORDER IN TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN TO KOREAN LANGUAGE / D.V. Sergienko // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 48—51. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/pravilnaya-rasstanovka-logicheskogo-udareniya-v-predlozhenii-s-obratnym-poryadkom-slov-v-perevode-s-russkogo-na-korejskij-yazyk/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.1
Sergienko D.V. CORRECT PLACEMENT OF LOGICAL STRESS IN A SENTENCE WITH A REVERSE WORDS ORDER IN TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN TO KOREAN LANGUAGE / D.V. Sergienko // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 48—51. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.1

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Сергиенко Д.В.1
1-, Российский государственный социальный университет, Москва, Россия
ПРАВИЛЬНАЯ РАССТАНОВКА ЛОГИЧЕСКОГО УДАРЕНИЯ В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ С ОБРАТНЫМ ПОРЯДКОМ СЛОВ В ПЕРЕВОДЕ С РУССКОГО НА КОРЕЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Аннотация
В статье рассматриваются особенности перевода предложений с обратным порядком слов русского языка на корейский язык, с применением лингвистического и грамматического анализов инверсий в исходном и переводном языках. В результате исследования была выявлены несколько стратегий переводческой деятельности, используемые в зависимости от необходимости семантической интерпретации, а так же на основании необходимости расставления правильного логического ударения на языке перевода в соответствии с исходным текстом. Определена зависимость перевода от грамматического строя предложений в рамках расставления логического ударения и тема-рематического деления языков оригинала и перевода.
Ключевые слова: инверсия, перевод, тема-рематическое деление, логическое ударение, стратегия перевода.
Страницы: 48 - 51

Sergienko D.V.1
1-, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia
CORRECT PLACEMENT OF LOGICAL STRESS IN A SENTENCE WITH A REVERSE WORDS ORDER IN TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN TO KOREAN LANGUAGE
Abstract
The article shows the peculiarities of sentences with the reverse words order translation from Russian language to Korean, using linguistic and grammatical analyzes of inversions in the source and translation languages. The results of the research identifies several translation strategies, used in dependence of need for semantic interpretation, as well as on the basis of the need to arrange the correct logical stress in the target language according to the source text. The dependence of the translation on the grammatical structure of sentences in the framework of the arrangement of the logical stress and the theme-rhematical division of the languages of the original and the translation is determined.
Keywords: inversion, translation, theme-rhematical division, logical stress, translation strategy.
Pages: 48 - 51
Почта авторов / Author Email: sergienkodv[at]inbox.ru

Introduction

Many scientists working in the field of linguistics attribute translation to the most multifaceted and complex phenomena. At the same time, the translation of novels is considered as a true art, since it requires the translator to transmit not only the content, but also the expressive function of the text, achieved by certain language means and the rhythm of a text.

The problem of the full-fledged transfer of artistic text to a foreign language is widely considered in modern domestic and foreign linguistic science. In the works by L. S. Barkhudarov, V. N. Komissarov, V. S. Vinogradov and other scientists the process of translating artistic tests are researched from the point of view of the theoretical linguistic paradigm, highlighting such translation techniques that contribute to the most complete representation of the text in a foreign language [2, 3, 5].

At the same time, there a translator should understand not only the content of the text, but also the pragmatic attitudes of the author of this text, which carry the function of a certain influence on the recipient [1, 4]. Such pragmatic attitudes are realized through non-distorted emotional, evaluative and expressive aspects of language units. [4].

Currently, there are a large number of works that shows researches of various aspects of the theory of artistic text. However, the study of its structure is still an urgent problem within the framework of the modern scientific paradigm, which is conditioned by the presence of unique features in each text, and by the emergence of new, including author, means of artistic expression.

One of the most common stylistic techniques of artistic text in the Russian language is the use of sentences with the reverse word order, which allows to emphasize the most important information in the sentence. This is the manifestation of the theme-rhematical division of the sentence, as well as the rhythm of the text. Thereby, The Queen of Spades by A. Pushkin and its translation into Korean language published by «신라출판사» in the volume «감동을 주는 세계 단편소설», 2015, were chosen as a material for this research.

Method

In the process of research the novel translation, it is necessary to apply a comprehensive method of analysis. In the framework of this work linguopragmatic and grammatical analyzes, as well as the method of quantitative calculations were used.

Linguistic and pragmatic analysis is aimed at exploring the pragmatic intentions of the author of a work of art.

Within the framework of this study, grammatical analysis is aimed at determining the grammatical structure of a sentence, which makes it possible to determine its theme-rhematical division and a place of logical stress. The method of quantitative calculations is aimed at studying the frequency of using inversion sentences.

Discussion

The phenomenon in which there is a generally accepted process of changing the order of words in a sentence is called inversion. As a rule, the reverse order of words in sentences is accompanied by a logical stress or overtills a logical stress on the word being defined. There are several types of sentences with reverse order of words, depending on their syntactic structure.

Quite often in the narrative speech there are inversion sentences, where the Predicate appears in the first place. This technique is used to describe the process or other phenomena where there is a change of events or a description of the scene of action. The Predicate in the first place is a sign of the author’s desire to emphasize the significance of the action taking place. «Лиза побежала в свою комнату. Не прошло двух минут, графиня начала звонить изо всей мочи» – «이바노브나가 제 방으로 간 후 2분도 못 되어 백작 부인이 다시 고함을 질렀다» [7]. The syntactic structure of the Korean sentence has a strict order of the parts contained in it, and therefore, putting the Predicate in the Korean sentence in the first place to strengthen the logical stress is not possible. In the original text of the work, the logical stress focuses on the amount of time “two minutes” («двух минут») by putting the verb with the negative particle “not” («не») in the first place. Thereby, in the text of the target language, the translator put an intensifying particle “- 도” to the noun “분”.

Also, in Russian there are cases when the Possessive Pronoun is put after the Noun it defines. Such a phenomenon occurs when it is necessary to transfer the logical emphasis on the noun being defined. «Твердость твоя для меня удивительна» – «자네 의지도 알아줄 만해» [7]. As in the previous case, the structure of the Korean sentence does not allow the use of the structure of the sentence of the Russian language, therefore, in this case, the amplifying particle “- 도” is also used.

«Многочисленная челядь ее, разжирев и поседев в ее передней и девичьей, делала, что хотела, наперерыв обкрадывая умирающую старуху» – «백작 부인의 밑에서 살이 오르고 늙어가는 하인들은 제멋대로 행동하면서 서로 앞을 다투어 주인의 재산을 빼돌리려고 눈에 불을 켠 형편이었다» [7]. In the case of this sentence, the translator missed the adjective “numerous” («многочисленная»), in connection with which the logical stress shifted to the impartial circulation. Also, this sentence has inadequate translation and should be translated in a following way: «백작 부인의 아래서 살이 오르고 늙어가는 하인들은 제멋대로 행동하면서 서로 앞을 다투어 주인의 재산을 빼돌리려고 눈에 불을켜고 다닌다».

In the case of a definition, there are two types of inversion sentences: simple inversion, or attribute, and inversion, complicated by a predicative value, or a separate definition.

Of particular interest, due to the complexity of the translation of this construction, cause the inversion of the second type. Inversion, complicated by predicative meaning, is one of the ways of grammatical figuration of a separate definition as a special syntactic category. «Не имея привычки кокетничать с прохожими офицерами, она перестала глядеть на улицу и шила около двух часов, не поднимая головы» – «거리를 지나는 장교들한테 눈길을 보낸다는 것은  이바노브나답지 않은 행동이었으므로 그녀는 창에서 고개를 돌리고 머리를 들지 않은 채 2 시간 동안이나 열심히 수를 놓았다» [7]. This example shows the full compliance of the topic-rhematical division carried by the translator in the target language, but translation was made in inadequate way and should be followed: «거리를 지나는 장교들한테 눈길을 보낸다는 것은  이바노브나답지 않은 행동이므로 그녀는 창에서 고개를 돌리고 머리도 들지 않은 채 2 시간 동안 열심히 수를 놓았다».

The Object, being a minor member of the sentence, answering the question of indirect cases, in sentences with reverse order of words reinforces the meaning of the additional circumstances of the action that taking place. Supplement helps to strengthen the internal relationship of the sentence. «Отроду не брал он карты в руки, отроду не загнул ни одного пароли, а до пяти часов сидит с нами и смотрит на нашу игру!» – «저 사람은 지금까지 트럼프를 잡아 본 일도 없고 노름이라는 것을 해 본 일도 없어. 그런데 밤을 새워 새벽 5시까지 줄곧 우리들이 노름하는 것을 구경하는 거야» [7]. In the case of this example, since the structure of the Korean proposal allows this phenomenon, it is necessary to put the object “since birth” («отроду» – «지금 까지») in the first place, as it happens in the source text, which is necessary to enhance the logical stress on the Object. Also, for more high level of adequacy translation of this sentence should be followed: «지금까지 저 사람은 트럼프 카드를 잡아 본 적도 없고 노름이라는 것을 해 본 적도 없어. 그래서 밤을새도록 새벽 5시까지 줄곧 우리들이 노름하는 것을 구경만 하는 거야».

The example «С нею был коротко знаком человек очень замечательный» –  «그 무렵에 할머니는 어느 유명한 남자와 친분이 조금 있었다네» [7] shows that intensification of the Object in Korean language can be achieved using the amplifying particle “-는” to emphasize the significance of an object of action, phenomenon, or action.

In addition, there is the type of sentences with the reverse word order are sentences where an Adverbial Modifier comes first. This minor member of a sentence indicates a sign of an action or other attribute, explaining the predicate or other members of the sentence.

One type of an Adverbial Modifier is an Adverbial Modifier of place: «Лизавета Ивановна осталась одна: она оставила работу и стала глядеть в окно. Вскоре на одной стороне улицы из-за угольного дома показался молодой офицер» – «이바노브나는 풀이 나간 후 창가로 가서 밖을 내다보고 있으려니 젊은 장교 한 사람이 길모퉁이에 나타났다» [7]. In this case, an amplifying particle “- 는” is also required to enhance the adverbial modifier. But since the use of this particle in one sentence is twice invalid, it is necessary to split the sentence in the target language into two sentences: «풀이 빠진 이바노브나는 창가로 가서 밖을 내다보고 있었다. 곧 얼마 지나지 않아 길모통이에서 젊은 장교 한 사람이 나타났다».

«В свете она играла самую жалкую роль. Все ее знали и никто не замечал; на балах она танцевала только тогда, как недоставало vis-à-vis, и дамы брали ее под всякий раз, как им нужно было идти в уборную поправить что-нибудь в своем наряде» – «사교계에서 이바노브나의 위치는 비참해서 그녀를 알고는 있었으나 거들떠보는 사람은 아무도 없었다. 무도회에 가서도 남자들이 많이 있을 때는 춤을 출 수 없었고, 부인들이 필요한 일이 있어 화장실에 가고 싶으면 그때마다 이바노브나의 팔을 붙들었다» [7]. Within this passage, the logical stress and subject-rhematical division is correct, but translation is not adequate: «사교계에서 이바노브나의 위치는 비참했다. 모두들 그녀를 알고는 있었으나 거들떠보는 사람은 아무도 없었다. 무도회에 가서 춤 출 짝이 모지랄 때에만 춤을 출수 있었고 부인들이 자기 단장들을 하기 위해 화장실에 갈 때에만 이바노부나를 데리고 화장실로 갔다».

Another common type of an Adverbial Modifier is the Adverbial Modifier of time: «Однажды играли в карты у конногвардейца Нарумова» – «트럼프 노름은 기병대 장교인 나루모프의 집에서 열렸다» [7]. In the translation of this sentence, the adverbial modifier “once” («однажды») is omitted, in connection with which the following translation option is proposed: «어느 날 트럼프카드 노름이 기병대 장교인 나루모프의 집에서 열렸다».

«На другой день она велела позвать мужа, надеясь, что домашнее наказание ад ним подействовало, но нашла его непоколебимым» – «이틀날 아침, 할머니는 하룻밤 서로 떨어져 잤으므로 무슨 효과 있겠지 하고 할아버지에게 사람을 보내 보았으나, 전혀 돌아설 기미가 보이지 않아 평생 처음으로 사정도 하고 변명도 했으나 할아버지의 고집은 변함이 없다고 해» [7]. «В то время дамы играли в фараон» – «그때의 여자들은 흔히 패아로라는 놀음을 했는데…» [7].In these examples, the logical stress is also placed correctly.

An Adverbial Modifier of manner: «Несколько раз начинала она свое письмо, — и рвала его: то выражения казались ей слишком снисходительными, то слишком жестокими» – «그녀는 조그만 책상을 마주하고 앉아 답장을 쓰다가 찢고 쓰다가 찢는 일을 몇 번이고 되풀이 했다» [7]. Although in this case the adverbial modifier “찢고 쓰다가 찢는 일 을 몇 번 이고” stands at the end of the sentence, a logical emphasis was obtained by applying the description of repetitive actions.

The last type of sentence with the reverse word order is the sentence of the combination of a noun with a numeral, where the numerals have an approximate meaning with the semantics of inaccuracy. «Надобно знать, что бабушка моя, лет шестьдесят тому назад, ездила в Париж и была там в большой моде» – «60년 전에 할머니가 프랑스 파리에 가셨을 때는 파리 시내에서 떠들썩하니 화젯거리가 되었지» [7]. In order to impart semantics of inaccuracy and enhance the logical stress in this case, it is necessary to add a particle of approximation “거의” and fix a translation in a more adequate way: «거의  60년 전에 할머니가 프랑스 파리에 다녀오신 것은 파리 시내에서 떠들썩하니 화젯거리가 되었지».

«Дня через два, выходя с графиней садиться в карету, она опять увидела его» – «그런데 이틀 후 백작 부인과 마차를 타고 오다가 그 장교를 또 만나게 되었다» [7]. In this example, the logical stress is also correct.

Results

The results of this research showed that there are several ways to transfer the intensifying effect of a Russian language sentence with the reverse word order to Korean, but this is not always possible to do this in the right way.

To transmit expressive enhancement to Korean, a permutation of some sentence members can be used in the first place in a  sentence. Also common is the active use of amplifying particles.

There is a high importance of logical emphasis, which indicates exactly the processes and phenomena that the author wants to highlight. Without correctly transferred logical stress, the reader will not be able to feel the intentions that were laid down in the text by the author.

When using the method of quantitative calculations, it was revealed that the most common in this product inverse sentences were sentences with amplification by means of circumstance and a separate definition, which is 42% for each of these types.

Conclusion

Based on the above, it should be noted once again that the translation requires special care and understanding of the linguistic and grammatical properties of the language, as well as the awareness of a different type.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Алексеев С.А. Передача структуры образов художественного текста в переводе: на материале англо-русских переводов. Дис. … канд. филол. наук / А.С. Алексеев – Москва, 2009. – 165 с.
  2. Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод: вопросы общей и частной теории перевода / Л.С. Бархударов – М.: Изд-во ЛКИ, 2008. – 238 с.
  3. Виноградов В.С. Введение в переводоведение (общие и лексические вопросы) / В.С. Виноградов – М.: Изд-во Ин-та общ. и сред. образования РАО, 2001. – 224 с.
  4. Дотмурзиева З.С. Прагматика англоязычного художественного текста и проблемы прагматики его перевода. Дис. … канд. филол. наук / З.С. Дортмурзиева – Пятигорск, 2006. – 233 с.
  5. Комиссаров В.Н. Семантика перевода / В.Н. Комиссаров – М.: Международные отношения, 1980. с. 51-100.
  6. 6. Пушкин А.С. Пиковая Дама / А.С. Пушкин – Электронный ресурс [URL: https://ilibrary.ru/text/480/p.7/index.html]
  7. 푸시킨. 스페이드 여왕. 감동을 주는 세계 단편 소설 / 푸시킨 – 서울: 신라출판사, 2015. 403-438 c.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Alekseev S.A. Peredacha struktury` obrazov xudozhestvennogo teksta v perevode: na materiale anglo-russkix perevodov [The transfer of the structure of images of the literary text in translation: on the material of the English-Russian translation]. – Moscow, 2009. – P 165 [In Russian]
  2. Barxudarov L.S. Yazy`k i perevod: voprosy` obshhej i chastnoj teorii perevoda [Language and Translation: Questions of General and Private Translation Theory]. – M.: Pub. LKI, 2008. – P 238 [In Russian]
  3. Vinogradov V.S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie (obshhie i leksicheskie voprosy`) [Introduction to Translation Studies (general and lexical questions)] / V.S. Vinogradov – M.: Pub. In-ta obsh. i sred. obrazovaniya RAO, 2001. – P 224 [In Russian]
  4. Dotmurzieva Z.S. Pragmatika angloyazy`chnogo xudozhestvennogo teksta i problemy` pragmatiki ego perevoda [Pragmatics of the English-language literary text and the problems of the pragmatics of its translation]. – Pyatigorsk, 2006. – P 233 [In Russian]
  5. Komissarov V.N. Semantika perevoda [Translation semantics]. – M.: Mezhdunarodny`e otnosheniya, 1980. P. 51-100 [In Russian]
  6. Pushkin A.S. Pikovaya Dama [The Queen of Spades] / A.S. Pushkin – Electronic resource [URL: https://ilibrary.ru/text/480/p.7/index.html] [In Russian]
  7. Pushikin. Spaideu Aewan. Camdoneul juneun saekae danpheun sosul [The Queen of Spades] / Pushikin – Seoul: Sillachulphansa, 2015. P 403-438 [In Korean]

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