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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.011

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Shilikov S. LETTERS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS REPRESENTING ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS IN WRITING [REVIEW] / S. Shilikov // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 44—47. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/graficheskaya-peredacha-anglijskix-diftongov-na-pisme-obzor/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.011
Shilikov S. LETTERS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS REPRESENTING ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS IN WRITING [REVIEW] / S. Shilikov // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 3 (19). — С. 44—47. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.19.3.011

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Шиликов С.1
1Индивидуальный предприниматель, Центр иностранных языков и перевода «Ин. яз.», Тюмень, Россия
ГРАФИЧЕСКАЯ ПЕРЕДАЧА АНГЛИЙСКИХ ДИФТОНГОВ НА ПИСЬМЕ [ОБЗОР]
Аннотация
Статья посвящена исследованию проблемы графической передачи дифтонгов при осуществлении образовательной деятельности индивидуальным предпринимателем в рамках дисциплины «Иностранный язык (английский)». Автор рассматривает основные способы графической передачи фонем, а именно буквы и комбинации букв, используемые при образовании рассматриваемых звуков. Исследование имеет целью удовлетворить потребности обучающихся, а также педагогических работников в описании способов графической передачи звуков английского языка.
Ключевые слова: английский язык, графическая передача, дифтонги, индивидуальный предприниматель, образовательная деятельность.
Страницы: 44 - 47

Shilikov S.1
1Individual Entrepreneur, In. Yaz. – Foreign Languages, Interpretation and Translation Centre, Tyumen, Russia
LETTERS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS REPRESENTING ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS IN WRITING [REVIEW]
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the problem of graphic spelling of diphthongs in educational activities of the individual entrepreneur in English classes. The author identifies the main ways of graphic spelling of the phonemes, namely letters and combinations of letters used in the formation of the sounds in question. The study aims to meet the needs of learners as well as teachers in describing the ways of graphic spelling of English sounds.
Keywords: diphthongs, educational activities, English, graphic spelling, individual entrepreneur.
Pages: 44 - 47
Почта авторов / Author Email: shilikov[at]rambler.ru

In 2012, the Russian Legislature adopted Federal Act “About Education in the Russian Federation” [8]. Under the Act, none but educational institutions, organizations carrying out education and individual entrepreneurs are entitled to render educational activities [8. Article 21]. The Act stipulates that individual entrepreneurs render educational activities directly or indirectly by employing pedagogical workers [8. Article 32]. The educational activities of individual entrepreneurs within the framework of teaching English cover a very diverse target audience that includes pre-school children, students of secondary and higher educational institutions, individuals, representatives of legal entities. These groups are currently presented by citizens of the Russian Federation, the CIS and foreign countries.

The year of 2015 initiated our research which was planned that same year, done in 2015-2018 and approved in 2018-2019 at In. Yaz. – Foreign Languages, Interpretation and Translation Center (Individual Entrepreneur – Shilikov S.I.). In English classes, we observed the students experience phonetic and spelling problems while learning English words containing one and the same letter or a combination of the same letters pronounced differently in definite cases, e.g. the vowel letter a in the following words: after – [a:], age – [eɪ], ago – [ə], all – [o:], ant – [æ], Bologna – [jə], climate – [ɪ], parent – [ɛə], watch – [ɔ]; the combination of vowel and consonant letters our: sour – [sauə], tumour – [ə], courtesy – [3:], concourse – [o:], tour – [uə]; the combination of consonant letters ch, e.g. chef – [ʃ], chess – [tʃ], chorus – [k], sandwich – [dƷ].

The relevance of the research work arose in the background of insufficient coverage of the declared topic in the educational process carried out by individual entrepreneurs in the Russian Federation. The introductory [10], introductory and phonetic courses [6], English phonetics [15] and phonology manuals [14], [20] at that time did not allow us to find irrefragable answers to all questions of the students regarding the multiple ways of graphical spelling of vowel and consonant phonemes. That demand prompted us to study the problem thouroughly.

The material of the research work consisted of various texts taken for our consideration from pieces of literature, periodicals, the Internet. We also dealt with business correspondence, films, advertising; explanatory [5], [7], [17] and on-line dictionaries [11], [12], [13]; guides to contemporary English pronunciation [16], [18], [19]. We examined the parts of speech and their transformations regarding tense, voice, number, case, degree, mood categories. It seemed natural for us to view abbreviations, acronyms, interjections and loan words, paying particular attention to such toponyms [3] as the names of cities, continents, countries, days of the week, months, nationalities, people’s names, patronymics and sur-names, rivers, salads, social networks, seas, stars, states, wines, etc.

In this article, we endeavour to compile and systematize the ways of graphical spelling of diphthongs ([au], [ɔɪ], [ɪə], [əʊ], [aɪ], [uə], [ɛə], [eɪ]) [2], [4], [6] omitting other 12 vowel (10 monophthonhs, 2 diphthongoids) and 24 consonant sounds [9], [10].

The vowel sound [aʊ] can be represented by combinations of English letters au (e.g. Saudi Arabia – [saudɪəˈreɪbɪə]), ou (tousle – [ˈtauzl] or [ˈtauzəl]), ough (plough – [plau]), ow (scowl – [skaul]). The sound [aʊ] can be placed in the initial (out – [aut]), middle (house – [haus]) and final (brow – [brau]) position of words. The diphthong [aʊ] is represented by four combinations of letters (au, ou, ough, ow). In two cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (au, ou) and in two cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (ough, ow). For detailed information on diphthongs and letters and letter combinations representing them, we refer our readers to Table 1 below.

Table 1 – Ways of Graphical Spelling of Diphthongs

#

Vowel Phoneme

Vowel Letters and their Combinations

Combinations of Vowel and Consonant Letters

Consonant Letter

Combination of the Apostrophe, Consonant and Vowel Letters

1.

[aʊ]

au, ou

ough, ow

 

 

2.

[ɔɪ]

oi, oy

ois

 

 

3.

[iə]

e

ear, eer, eir, ere, hea, iar, ier, ior, ir

 

 

ea, eo, eou, eu, ia, ie, io, iou, iu, ya

4.

[əʊ]

o

aoh, ew, hau, ho, ol, ough, ow, owe

 

‘ho

eau, au, eou, oa, oe, oo, ou

5.

[aɪ]

i, y

eigh, ig, igh

 

 

ei, ey, eye, ie, ui, uy, ye

6.

[ʊə]

u

ewer, oor, our, uar, ueur, ure

 

 

ua, ue, uou

7.

[ɛə]

a, e

air, aire, are, ayor, ear, eir, er, ere

 

 

ae, ai

8.

[eɪ]

a, e, é

ag, aig, aigh, eig, eigh, er, et, uet

h, j, k

 

ae, ai, ay, ea, ee or ée, ei, ey, oa

 

The vowel sound [ɔɪ] can be represented by combinations of letters oi (moist – [mɔɪst]), ois (Illinois – [ɪlɪˈnɔɪ]), oy (deploy – [dɪˈplɔɪ]). The sound [ɔɪ] can be placed in the initial (oyster – [ˈɔɪstə]), middle (avoid – [əˈvɔɪd]) and final (destroy – [dɪˈstrɔɪ]) position of words. The diphthong [ɔɪ] is represented by three combinations of letters (oi, ois, oy). In two cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (oi, oy) and in one case by a combination of vowel and consonant letters (ois).

The vowel sound [ɪə] can be represented by the letter e (query – [ˈkwɪərɪ]) and by combinations of letters ea (ideal – [aɪˈdɪəl]), ear (sear – [sɪə]), eer (veneer – [vɪˈnɪə] or [vəˈnɪə]), eir (weird – [wɪəd]), eo (theory – [ˈθɪərɪ]), eou (hideous – [ˈhɪdɪəs]), ere (adhere – [ədˈhɪə]), eu (linoleum – [lɪˈnəʊlɪəm]), hea (gonorrhea – [gɔnəˈrɪə]), ia (guardian – [ˈga:dɪən]), iar (peculiar – [pɪˈkju:lɪə]), ie (nutrient – [ˈnju:trɪənt]), ier (pierce – [pɪəs]), io (oblivion – [əbˈlɪvɪən]), ior (warrior – [ˈwɔrɪə]), iou (tedious – [ˈti:dɪəs]), ir (souvenir – [su:vəˈnɪə]), iu (premium – [ˈpri:mɪəm]), ya (Libya – [ˈlɪbɪə]). The sound [iə] can be placed in the zero (ear – [ɪə]), initial (earshot – [ˈɪəʃɔt]), middle (material – [məˈtɪərɪəl]) and final (fear – [fɪə]) position of words. The diphthong [iə] is represented by one letter (e) and 19 combinations of letters (ea, ear, eer, eir, eo, eou, ere, eu, hea, ia, iar, ie, ier, io, ior, iou, ir, iu, ya). In 10 cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (ea, eo, eou, eu, ia, ie, io, iou, iu, ya) and in nine cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (ear, eer, eir, ere, hea, iar, ier, ior, ir).

The vowel sound [əʊ] can be represented by the letter o (rodent – [ˈrəʊdnt] or [ˈrəʊdənt]) and by combinations of letters aoh (pharaoh – [ˈfɛərəʊ]), au (sauté – [ˈsəʊteɪ]), eau (plateau – [ˈplætəʊ]), eou (Seoul – [səʊl]), ew (sew – [səʊ]), hau (haute couture – [əʊtkʊˈtuə], [əʊtkʊˈtjuə] or [əʊtku:ˈtjuə]), ho (Rhode Island – [rəʊdˈaɪlənd]), ho (table d’hote – [ta:blˈdəʊt] or [ta:bəlˈdəʊt]), oa (float – [fləʊt]), oe (foe – [fəʊ]), ol (folk – [fəʊk]), oo (brooch – [brəʊtʃ]), ou (soul – [səʊl]), ough (dough – [dəʊ]), ow (mellow – [ˈmeləʊ]), owe (owe – [əʊ]). The sound [əʊ] can be placed in the zero (Oh – [əʊ]), initial (own – [əʊn]), middle (note – [nəʊt]) and final (polo – [ˈpəʊləʊ]) position of words. The diphthong [əʊ] is represented by one letter (o), by 15 combinations of letters (aoh, eau, au, eou, ew, hau, ho, oa, oe, ol, oo, ou, ough, ow, owe) and by one combination of the apostrophe, a consonant and a vowel letters (ho). In seven cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (eau, au, eou, oa, oe, oo, ou), in eight cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (aoh, ew, hau, ho, ol, ough, ow, owe) and in one case by a combination of the apostrophe and letters (ho).

The vowel sound [aɪ] can be represented by the letters i (grime – [graɪm]), y (ply – [plaɪ]) and by combinations of letters ei (skein – [skaɪn]), eigh (height – [haɪt]), ey (geyser – [ˈgaɪzə]), eye (eye – [aɪ]), ie (tie – [taɪ]), ig (benign – [bɪˈnaɪn]), igh (knight – [naɪt]), ui (disguise – [disˈgaɪz]), uy (buy – [baɪ]), ye (bye – [baɪ]). The sound [aɪ] can be placed in the zero (I – [aɪ]), initial (either – [ˈaɪðə]), middle (neither – [ˈnaɪðə]) and final (verify – [ˈverɪfaɪ]) position of words. The diphthong [aɪ] is represented by two letters (i, y) and by 10 combinations of letters (ei, eigh, ey, eye, ie, ig, igh, ui, uy, ye). In seven cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (ei, ey, eye, ie, ui, uy, ye) and in three cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (eigh, ig, igh).

The vowel sound [ʊə] can be represented by the letter u (rural – [ˈrʊərl] or [ˈrʊərəl]) and by combinations of letters ewer (skewer – [ˈskjʊə]), oor (moor – [mʊə] or [mo:]), our (dour – [dʊə]), ua (septuagenarian – [septjʊədƷɪˈnɛərɪən]), uar (Stuart – [ˈstjʊət]), ue (fuel – [fjʊəl]), ueur (liqueur– [lɪˈkjʊə]), uou (sumptuous – [ˈsɅmptʃʊəs] or [ˈsɅmptʃjʊəs]), ure (obscure – [ɔbsˈkjʊə]). The sound [ʊə] can be placed in the middle (gourmet – [ˈgʊəmeɪ]) and final (poor – [pʊə]) position of words. The diphthong [ʊə] is represented by one letter (u) and by nine combinations of letters (ewer, oor, our, ua, uar, ue, ueur, uou, ure). In three cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (ua, ue, uou) and in six cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (ewer, oor, our, uar, ueur, ure).

The vowel sound [ɛə] can be represented by the letters a (pharaoh – [ˈfɛərəʊ]), e (wisteria – [wɪsˈtɛərɪə]) and by combinations of letters ae (aerodynanics – [ɛərədaɪˈnæmɪks]), ai (dairy – [ˈdɛərɪ]), air (fair – [fɛə]), aire (questionnaire – [kwestʃəˈnɛə]), are (welfare – [ˈwelfɛə]), ayor (mayor – [mɛə]), ear (forebear – [ˈfo:bɛə]), eir (their – [ðɛə]), er (concierge – [konsɪˈɛəƷ]), ere (therefore – [ˈðɛəfo:]). The sound [ɛə] can be placed in the zero (air – [ɛə]), initial (area – [ˈɛərɪə]), middle (whereas – [wɛəˈræz]) and final (where – [wɛə]) position of words. The diphthong [ɛə] is represented by two letters (a, e) and by ten graphic combinations of letters (ae, ai, air, air, are, ayor, ear, eir, er, ere). In two cases, this phoneme is formed in graphic spelling by combinations of vowel letters (ae, ai) and in eight cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (air, aire, are, ayor, ear, eir, er, ere).

The vowel sound [eɪ] can be represented by the vowel letters a (slate – [sleɪt]) and e (elite – [eɪˈli:t]), by the consonant letters h (PhD – [pi:eɪtʃˈdi:]), j (J.F Kennedy – [dƷeɪefˈkenedɪ]) and k (KGB – [keɪdƷi:ˈbi:]), by the French letter é (protégé – [ˈprɔtɪƷeɪ]) and by combinations of letters ae (Gaelic – [ˈgeɪlɪk]), ag (champagne – [ʃæmˈpeɪn]), ai (maim – [meɪm]), aig (campaign – [kæmˈpeɪn]), aigh (straight – [streɪt]), ay (relay – [ri:ˈleɪ]), ea (steak – [steɪk]), ee or ée (matinee – [ˈmætɪneɪ], entrée – [ˈɔntreɪ] or [ˈa:ntreɪ]), ei (abseil – [ˈæbseɪl]), eig (reign – [reɪn]), eigh (freight – [freɪt]), er (foyer – [ˈfɔɪeɪ]), et (gourmet – [ˈgʊəmeɪ]), ey (fey – [feɪ]), oa (gaol – [dƷeɪl]), uet (bouquet – [bʊˈkeɪ]). The sound [eɪ] can be placed in the zero (Eh – [eɪ]), initial (eight – [eɪt]), middle (tame – [teɪm]) and final (bay – [beɪ]) position of words. The diphthong [eɪ] is represented by six letters (a, e, h, j, k, é), three of which are vowels and three are consonants, five are English and one is French, by 17 graphic combinations of letters (ae, ag, ai, aig, aigh, ay, ea, ee, ée, ei, eig, eigh, er, et, ey, oa, uet). In nine cases, this phoneme is formed in spelling by combinations of vowel letters (ae, ai, ay, ea, ee, ée, ei, ey, oa) and in eight cases by combinations of vowel and consonant letters (ag, aig, aigh, eig, eigh, er, et, uet).

The research allowed us to work out and prepair for publishing a guide-book of drills containing lists of words formed by means of ABC letters and their combinations used to denote the English sounds.

The results of the scientific analysis persuade us that the presented material can be effective in the educational process rendered by teachers at educational institutions, organizations carrying out education and by individual entrepreneurs when explaining the articulation of English phonemes via graphic spelling of letters and their combinations to students. Demonstrating the data of the study to learners can facilitate their understanding the problem of English alphabet letter combinations representing the sounds used in the formation of lexical units [1] while practicing the pronunciation [19].

We assume that the ways of graphic spelling of the phonemes presented by us are not exhaustive because it is impossible to cover the whole spectrum of English language due to its constant development.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. Пособие для студентов английских отделений педагогических вузов / Арнольд И.В. – М.: Изд-во «Просвещение», 1966. – 342 с.
  2. Васильев В.А. Фонетика английского языка. Учебник для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков / Васильев В.А., Катанская А.Р., Лукина Н.Д. и др. — 2-е изд., перераб. — М.: Высшая школа, 1980. — 256 с.
  3. Ермолович Д.И. Имена собственные: теория и практика межъязыковой передачи / Ермолович Д.И. – М.: Р. Валент, Библиотека лингвиста, 2005. – 416 с.
  4. Манштейн С.А. Иллюстрированный курс английского языка / Манштейн С.А. Петроградъ. Типография Тренке и Фюсно, Максимилiановский пер., № 13. 1916. – 157 с.
  5. Маслов Ю.С. Введение в языкознание: Учеб. для филол. спец. вузов / Маслов Ю.С. – 3-е изд., испр. – М.: Высш. шк., 1998. – 272 с.
  6. Матюшкина-Герке Т.И. Учебник английского языка: для I курса филол и др. фак. ун-тов / Матюшкина-Герке Т.И., Балашова С.П., Броссе Н.Н. и др. – 3-е изд., иcпр. и доп. – М.: Высш. школа, 1979. – 508 с., ил.
  7. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский словарь, 70 000 слов и выражений / Мюллер В.К. – Спб., «Академический проект», – 1996
  8. «Об образовании в Российской Федерации»: Федеральный закон от 29 декабря 2012 г., N 273-Ф3 [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_140174/ (дата обращения 25.08.2019)
  9. Торсуев Г.П. Фонетика английского языка. 15-я типография «Искра революции» Главполитграфиздата при Совете Министров СССР / Торсуев Г.П. – М: Изд-во литературы на иностранных языках, 1950. – 332 с.
  10. Шах-Назарова В.С. Английский язык для вас: в 2-х частях / Шах-Назарова В.С., Журавченко К.В. 4-е изд., испр. – К. : Лумина, 1992. – 653 с.
  11. Электронный словарь Abbyy Lingvo [Электронный ресурс] – URL: https://www.lingvolive.com/en-us (дата обращения 25.08.2019)
  12. Электронный словарь Promt online [Электронный ресурс] – URL: https://www.lingvolive.com/en-us (дата обращения 25.08.2019)
  13. Электронный словарь Мультитран [Электронный ресурс] – URL: https://www.lingvolive.com/en-us (дата обращения 25.08.2019)
  14. Carr P. English Phonetics & Phonology /Carr P. – Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. – 204 p.
  15. Collins S B. English Phonetics: Twentieth-Century Development / Collins S B. – Taylor&Francis, 2013. – 3008 p.
  16. Jones D. The Pronunciation of English: I. Phonetics. I. Phonetic Transcriptions / Jones D. – Scholar`s Choice Edition, 2015. – 182 p.
  17. Macmillan English Dictionary, 2006. – 1693 p.
  18. Ogden R. Introduction to English / Ogden R. – Bloomsbury Academic. 2 ed., 2017. – 240 p.
  19. Carley P. Inger M. Mees and Beverley Collins. English phonetics and pronunciation practice / Carley P., Inger M. – Taylor&Francis, 2017. – 328 p.
  20. Roach P. English Phonetics and Phonology. Paperback with Audio CDs (2): A Practical Course / Roach P. 4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2009. – 244 p.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Arnold I.V. Leksikologija sovremennogo anglijjskogo jazyka. Posobie dlja studentov anglijjskikh otdelenijj pedagogicheskikh vuzov [ Lexicology of modern English. A manual for students of English departments of pedagogical universities] / Arnold I.V. – M.: Izd-vo «Prosveshhenie», 1966. – 342 p. [in Russian]
  2. Vasilev V.A., Katanskaja A.R., Lukina N.D. Fonetika anglijjskogo jazyka. Uchebnik dlja institutov i fakul’tetov inostrannykh jazykov [ Phonetics of the English language. Textbook for institutes and faculties of foreign languages] / Vasilev V.A., Katanskaja A.R., Lukina N.D. and others. — 2 ed. — M.: Vysshaja shkola, 1980. — 256 p.
  3. Ermolovich D.I. Imena sobstvennye: teorija i praktika mezh"jazykovojj peredachi [Proper names: theory and practice of interlanguage transmission] / Ermolovich D.I. – M.: R. Valent, 2005. – 416 p. [in Russian]
  4. Manshtejjn S.A. Illjustrirovannyjj kurs anglijjskogo jazyka [Illustrated English course] / Manshtejjn S.A. Petrograd. Tipografija Trenke i Fjusno, Maksimilianovskijj per., № 13. 1916. – 157 p. [in Russian]
  5. Maslov Ju.S. Vvedenie v jazykoznanie: Ucheb. dlja filol. spec. vuzov [ Introduction to Linguistics: A Textbook for Philologists] / Maslov Ju.S.. – 3 edit. – M.: Vyssh. shk., 1998. – 272 p. [in Russian]
  6. Matjushkina-Gerke T.I. Uchebnik anglijjskogo jazyka: dlja I kursa filol. fak. un-tov [English textbook: for I course of philology] / Matjushkina-Gerke T.I., Balashova S.P., Brosse N.N. and others. – 3 edit. – M.: Vyssh. shkola, 1979. – 508 p., il. [in Russian]
  7. Mjuller V.K. Anglo-russkijj slovar, 70 000 slov i vyrazhenijj / Mjuller V.K. – Spb., «Akademicheskijj proekt», – 1996 [in Russian]
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