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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2018.16.4.4

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Miroshnichenko G.A. COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGY OF VERBAL PERSUASION IN THE RUSSIAN TELEVISION ADVERTISING / G.A. Miroshnichenko // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2018. — № 4 (16). — С. 15—18. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/communicative-strategy-of-verbal-persuasion-in-the-russian-television-advertising/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2018.16.4.4
Miroshnichenko G.A. COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGY OF VERBAL PERSUASION IN THE RUSSIAN TELEVISION ADVERTISING / G.A. Miroshnichenko // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2018. — № 4 (16). — С. 15—18. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2018.16.4.4

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Мирошниченко Г.А.1
1Кандидат философских наук, Российский университет дружбы народов
КОММУНИКАТИВНАЯ СТРАТЕГИЯ ВЕРБАЛЬНОГО УБЕЖДЕНИЯ В РОССИЙСКОЙ ТЕЛЕВИЗИОННОЙ РЕКЛАМЕ
Аннотация
В статье анализируется коммуникативная стратегия вербального убеждения в российской телевизионной рекламе. Особое внимание уделяется специфике речевых высказываний, выявлению коммуникативных приемов, речевых тактик, характерных лексико-грамматических конструкций, применяемых в речевом воздействии на потребителя. Коммуникативная стратегия вербального убеждения раскрывается на примерах рекламной продукции телевизионной коммерческой рекламы. В результате исследования было доказано, что в сложившихся экономических реалиях вербальное убеждение является наиболее эффективной коммуникативной стратегией, мотивирующей вовлечение в потребление продукции мировых и отечественных брендов.
Ключевые слова: вербальное убеждение, коммуникативная стратегия, речевые тактики, лексико - грамматические конструкции.
Страницы: 15 - 18

Miroshnichenko G.A.1
1PhD in Philology, Peoples ’ Friendship University of Russia
COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGY OF VERBAL PERSUASION IN THE RUSSIAN TELEVISION ADVERTISING
Abstract
The article deals with the communicative strategy of verbal persuasion practiced in Russian television commercial advertising. The aim of the article is to identify the speech mechanism of persuasive influence. The result proved that verbal persuasion as reasoned substantiation of necessity of purchase of the advertised product implements appropriate communication techniques, verbal tactics, sustainable lexico-grammatical constructions used in speech effects on the communicants. It should be emphasized that the television media product is a synthesis of sounding live speech and entertainment. When applied to advertising, this means that the verbal text of the advertising message is perceived by the audience by ear and makes its way to the consumer through a powerful stream of various visual information. It is revealed that the effectiveness of persuasive influence in television advertising is provided by representative - directive speech statements of pragmatic orientation, containing specific language structures that allow to "push" the addressee to make a purchase.verbal persuasion, communicative strategy, speech tactics, lexical and grammatical constructions
Keywords: verbal persuasion, communicative strategy, speech tactics, lexical and grammatical constructions.
Pages: 15 - 18
Почта авторов / Author Email: mirosh2150@yandex.ru

Introduction

Television advertising is today the most influential media segment in the Russian advertising market [6], [7]. A study of television commercial advertising for 2016-2018 shows that there are more and more convincing advertising messages on the screens. Global and domestic brands in the current economic realities are beginning to abandon aggressive advertising communications, exploiting the suggestion and» infection», and prefer verbal persuasion as the most productive communicative strategy of impact on the consumer in order to actively engage in consumption. A comprehensive analysis of the strategy of verbal persuasion in the television media segment, which has significant differences in the organization and broadcasting of its content [9. P. 135] will contribute to a better understanding of the communicative mechanism of persuasive influence used in mass communication and the creation of high-quality advertising texts of persuasive orientation.

Method

As research tools we used the methods of conceptual, interpretative analysis, integrative methodology of discourse analysis, which allowed to identify strategic communication techniques, approaches persuasive impact on the consumer.  Discourse analysis contributed to the study of motivational and pragmatic structure of persuasive advertising message. The method of contextual and situational analysis, syntactic and lexical analysis of advertising allowed to identify speech tactics, stable grammatical structures used in commercial advertising for the purpose of motivation to purchase.

Discussion

Analysis of the literature showed that the persuasion in advertising is defined as" a form of direct message of thought, calculated on the logical perception, confirmed by facts and evidence"; [5. P. 30]; «critical understanding of the information received, its correlation with the previous own life experience» [8]; «argumentation, proof of the need for this product for the buyer» [1]; «appeal to the rational moments in the thinking of a person in order to change his or her views, attitudes or to form new» [4. P. 59]. From our point of view, the presented definitions do not fully take into account the mental organization of the individual, all behavioral acts of which have a motivated conditionality [2. C.43]. Therefore, under the verbal belief in advertising, we will understand the reasoned substantiation of necessity of purchase of the advertised product. The scientific literature describes the methods of rational argumentation, addressed to the mind of the consumer  —  deduction, induction, analogy, presentation of the argument as a fact, axioms; emotional reasoning, appealing to feelings, emotions, the main motives of the addressee – physical well-being, economic interests, social interests, truth and justice, entertainment; lexical and syntactic techniques in the construction of evidence  —  the use of «comparative and superlative adjectives», «incomplete comparisons», «counterarguments», «negations», «numerals», «universal » words»; the use of introductory constructions; opposition and comparison; the use of subordinate relations, questions and exclamations; direct speech, etc.[1],[4], [5], [8].  We have not revealed works devoted to the complex analysis of the strategy of verbal persuasion in television commercial advertising, the study of verbal persuasion as a holistic communicative process, the definition of strategic communication techniques, speech tactics that implement persuasive influence in the television media segment.

Results

Discourse analysis of commercial television advertising of various segments of goods showed that the communicative strategy of verbal persuasion is implemented by speech statements containing-problem-solution-effect, allowing to justify the advantages of the advertised product and the benefits of its acquisition:

Problem: "I, like many women, am afraid of varicose veins. Heaviness in the legs, swelling, pain."

Solution: "do you know what varicose is afraid of? — Venarus will help stop the development of varicose veins."

Effect: " I'm no longer afraid of varicose veins "("Venarus").

Speech statements in the structure of the communicative strategy of verbal persuasion are characterized by motivational and pragmatic orientation, initiating such a reaction of the addressee, in which he does not ignore the content of the advertising message, but rather distinguishes it from the flow of advertising messages, trying on its importance in solving their own problems:

"When taking cold and hot food, there is an increased sensitivity of the teeth. The consequence will be a decrease in the quality of life of the patient, and when it comes to increased sensitivity of the teeth, it is already a spark from the eyes" ("Sensodyne 30").

A specific feature of the communicative strategy of verbal persuasion in advertising is the predominance of representative and directive speech statements, the purpose of which is to "push" the addressee to specific practical actions-to buy here and now:

"Detective-super, read? It would be good to read, but now it is necessary to wipe the kitchen. — Kitchen-kitchen, you cannot forget about yourself. Try cleaning with Comet. Special formula from Comet penetrates even the most difficult stains and remove them from the first movement. A few minutes superdotato and the day is free" ("Comet").

The study showed that the main communicative purpose of a speech statement in the context of the "problem" is to attract the attention of the addressee to the advertising offer of the brand, the product of its promotion. The solution of the task is achieved by a communicative tactical technique — "appeal to the vital values of a person" – health, time, money, beauty, family, the violation of which causes strong emotions – excitement, anxiety, anxiety. As noted in this regard, the famous Russian psychologist Mi Enikeev: "Behavioral acts are always regulated by the emotions of the individual as the main driving force in the search and decision-making [2. C. 225].

 Let's look at the examples: ­−

 "What's wrong? My throat ached. I take so many drugs like my grandmother" ("Strepsils intensive»);  "We have a problem. Stress, excitement, tension and the family does not have enough strength ("Afobazol»);  "If someone cheats on you again and again, will you leave him? Really? I need a dandruff shampoo that never cheats on me" ("Clear»);   "Summer is coming, girls, it's time to check zip closes or treacherous travels" ("Bio Balance»); "Do you have not washed things to refer to the cottage? — There are a lot of things. Stains are not washed and children no longer wear them" ("Tide»); "Where does money go? I don't know" ("Tinkoff Black”);

Introduction to speech "problem" triggers of persuasive impact, reinforcing the perception the addressee of the promotional offers of the brand.

The effectiveness of persuasive influence in this context is supported by speech tactics — "provoking strong emotions", which is implemented by speech statements containing at the lexical and grammatical level:

− Emotionally-marked nouns that induce action: "heaviness in the legs, swelling, pain"; "inflammation and bleeding gums"; "stress, excitement, tension"; " sparks from the eyes»;

− Verbs present active indicative in the meaning of repeated action or action in the development, performing the functions of semantic focus on the real problem: "accept"; "cheats"; "go"; "leaving»;

− Expressive-evaluative adverbs with negative connotation: "never", "no", "treacherous", "long", " again»;

−  Language constructions, including statements and repetitions as motives for action: "when taking hot and cold food, there is an increased sensitivity of teeth, and when it comes to increased sensitivity of teeth — it is already sparks from the eyes" ("Sensodyne 30"); " If someone deceives you again and again, you throw it, right? I need a dandruff shampoo that never cheats on me" ("Pantene").

− Interrogative constructions drawing attention to the problem: "Where does the money go?"; "Do you have things to refer to the cottage?»

If the main communicative goal of persuasive influence at the "problem" stage is to attract the attention of the addressee to the brand proposal, to form motives for the desired action, then at the "solution" stage − to inspire confidence in the advertised product, which is provided by the tactical communicative technique – "introduction of a specialist".  Communicative method – "introduction the expert" allows to give more weight to verbal statements, to form such an external connotation as the validity in the perception of the advertised advantages of the product.

The impact of persuasive communication technique – "the introduction of the specialist supports the" verbal tactics "argument to scientific authority" that allows you to select a professional opinion, make it visible to the addressee of the advertising message.

Speech statements in this context contain at the lexical and grammatical level:

− Personal forms of verbs in the indicative mood with semantics I approve, I suggest, allowing to perceive the statements of a specialist as an expert opinion, increasing confidence in the properties of the advertised product: "I recommend my patients Sensodyne toothpaste, it penetrates into the tooth and reduces sensitivity»;

− Scientific vocabulary that distinguishes the speech of a specialist in the presentation of the product: "with inflammation and bleeding gums, brushing your teeth can be torture. You need not a regular toothbrush, and a new brush with green tea extract and ultra fine bristles. It improves the condition of the gums in 14 days. Oral — B – recommendations of dentists No. 1 in the world";

Scientific vocabulary is in the structure of the advertising message is captivating, the recipient's professional competence, enhances the credibility of the information about the product.

− Verbs in the imperative mood, expressing the urge to act in the form of advice, wishes: "there Are always unbelieving patients who just want to say – try" ("Sensodyne"). Speech act Directive in the form of expert advice allows you to distance yourself from the annoying edifying categoricity in advertising communication and not obsessively "push" the addressee to the desired action — the purchase of the product.

− Adverbs with the meaning of "total", "in General", "in total", emphasizing the "unique" functionality of the product, a quick result in solving problems: "with severe pain in the throat, often one strep force is enough"; "Only one tablet a day restores the tone of the veins and stops the destruction of the walls of blood vessels"("Venarus").

 Adverbs with the synthesis semantics of the speech of the specialist lend a weighty argument in favor of the high quality of the product, motivates the consumer to acquire them.

As the research shows, the increase of customers 'confidence in the advertised product is also provided by a popular communicative method that enhances the influencing effect-" introduction of reviews of media persons " — famous actors, showmen, TV presenters [3. P. 123-124], which are considered as authoritative subjects of persuasive communication, capable of significantly influencing the choice of the product, expressing their personal attitude to it.

The communicative approach — "introduction of reviews of media persons" — is implemented in speech tactics — "argument to the star", represented by speech statements, different emotional vocabulary with a bright connotative meaning, containing an unambiguous positive assessment:

"I really want to grow long hair. But what to do with split ends? Now with the new Pantene my hair is not vulnerable. Strong hair-Pantene hair" (Selena Gomez in Pantene advertising);

"For the sake of beauty, we are ready to go to great lengths and our hair sometimes has a very difficult. My solution is a new Elseve-complete recovery five. My hair is completely restored. I not only see, but also feel the result. For me this is the best shampoo" (Svetlana Khodchenkova in advertising " Elseve»);

"Where does the money go? I do not know. But I know where they're going. On Tinkoff Black. Probably the best card with cashback" (Ivan It is in the Tinkoff Black);

Thus, tactics "argument of scientific authority", "argument to the star", used by the sender with the aim of increasing the credibility of the advertising information about the product and enhance the persuasive effect on the consumer.

The analysis of the problem showed that the main communicative purpose of speech utterance, voicing "effect" − to confirm the promised advertising "fast" result.

Representation of the "effect" allows to use in the advertising story of the consumer as an influential subject of persuasive influence, who shares his positive impressions, successful personal experience of using the product in solving their problems.

Tactical communicative approach — "introduction of the consumer as a source of first-hand information" — is considered by us as pragmatically expedient, since a positive opinion about the product, confirmed by the experience of the consumers themselves, is always perceived as a reliable and effective influence on the decision to purchase the product:

"Now I take the whole body gel Bio Oil and my skin looks amazing!»; 

"Girls, during stress I do not recognize myself, well, that is new-Passit»;

If the recommendations of a specialist and media persons about the advertised product are most often heard in a monologue speech, the reviews and advice of buyers are usually presented in the dialogues:

"Can Tide save things from a link to the cottage?  Can't cope. – Here's the Tide, make sure he'll bring the stuff of country links. – Well, how? — Tide washed everything."

From our point of view, persuasive resource of advertising communication in the form of dialogue is manifested in the fact that the dialogue, as a simulated conversation, makes it possible through the exchange of replicas between the characters of the advertising story, to emphasize the "uniqueness" of the product and to distinguish it from competitors.

Strategic communicative approach — "introduction of the consumer as a source of first-hand information" — is supported by speech tactics — "appeal to experience", implemented by speech statements that differ:

− Stylistic coloration of speech:

 "If a thing is worth a thousand and a half, it is better to buy a powder, this good and wash all the things that become so wonderful again»;

"Heden Sholders? What? I thought it was just dandruff."  Easy-speaking style of speech, in this context, captivates the consumer accessibility in the perception of information, confidence in its objectivity. 

− Expressive conversational vocabulary with the semantics of "reliability", "advanced»:

 "New Heden Sholders gives superior protection from dandruff and 100% beauty of the hair. Feel like a Princess" ("Heden Sholders»);

"Take Vanish." Pouring water. Rub. Rub. Indeed, the stains disappear. Otstiralos on 5+" ("Vanish»);

Conclusion

Thus, the analysis of advertising messages revealed the strategy of verbal persuasion practiced in the Russian television commercial advertising. The study showed that the communicative strategy of verbal persuasion is determined by the interests of advertising communication and is aimed at motivating the mass audience — to purchase the advertised product. The effectiveness of the communicative mechanism is achieved by representative and directive speech statements of pragmatic orientation, containing the problem-solution-effect as motives for active action. Persuasive influence on the addressee is provided by strategic communication techniques — "appeal to vital human values", "introduction of a specialist", "introduction of reviews of media persons", "use of the consumer as a source of first – hand information"; speech tactics – "provoking strong emotions", "argument to scientific authority", "argument to the star", "appeal to the experience";-specific lexical and grammatical structures that allow "to push" the addressee to make a purchase. The strategy of verbal persuasion meets the modern needs of the consumer, tired of loud advertising promises, updated advertising policy of brands offering their product in the face of fierce competition in the struggle for the wallets of buyers.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Дмитриева Л.М. Приемы убеждения и аргументации в рекламе [Электронный ресурс]. - URL: https: //works.doklad.ru/view/3Ehy99l_YVk.html (дата обращения: 11.12.2017).
  2. Еникеев М.И. Общая и социальная психология: учебник. М.: Норма: ИНФРА, 2016. 640с.
  3. Мирошниченко Г.А. Новые тенденции в создании телевизионного рекламного контента // Вестник Российского университета Дружбы народов. Серия «Литературоведение, журналистика». М., 2015. № 3.С. 122 – 127.
  4. Пищерская Е.Н. Роль вербальных и визуальных компонентов баннерной рекламы в реализации стратегии убеждения // Вестник Иркутского Государственного университета. 2012. Т.1. №17. С.59 – 64.
  5. Рекламная деятельность [Текст]: учебник для студентов высших учебных заведений / Ф.Г. Панкратов, Ю.К. Баженов, Т.К. Серегина [и др.] – М.: Дашков и К°, 2002. 364 с.
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  7. «ТВ - аудитория: кто и как смотрел телевизор в 2015 году [Электронный ресурс]. - URL: http://www.totalview.ru/tv-auditoriya-kto-i-kak-smotrel-televizor-v-2015-godu/ (дата обращения: 02.02.2016).
  8. Феофанов О.В. Виды рекламного психологического воздействия: убеждение. 2 марта 2008г [Электронный ресурс]. - URL: http://advertion.blogspot.ru/2008/03/blog-post_556.html#.WquR3qBWokQ (дата обращения: 11.12.2017).
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Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Dmitrieva L.M. Priemy ubezhdenija i argumentacii v reklame [Techniques of persuasion and argumentation in advertising] [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://works.doklad.ru/view/3Ehy99l_YVk.html (accessed: 11.12.2017).
  2. Enikeev M.I. Obshhaja i socialnaja psihologija: uchebnik [The General and social psychology: a textbook]. Norma: INFRA – M, 2016, 640 p.
  3. Miroshnichenko, G. A. Novye tendencii v sozdanii televizionnogo reklamnogo contents [New trends in the creation of television advertising content]. Vesting Rossijskogo universiteta Druzhby narodov. Serija «Literaturovedenie, zhurnalistika — [Bulletin of the Russian University of Friendship of peoples. A series of "Literary journalism"], 2015, no. 3, pp. 122—127.
  4. Pishherskaja E.N. Rol’ verbalnyh i vizualnyh komponentov bannernoj reklamy v realizacii strategii ubezhdenija [The role of verbal and visual components of banner advertising strategy of persuasion] Vestnik Irkutskogo Gosudarstvennogo universiteta — [Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University], 2012, vol. 1, no 17, pp.59 – 64.
  5. F.G. Pankratov, Ju.K. Bazhenov, T.K. Seregina. Reklamnaja dejatelnost’: uchebnik [Promotional activities]. Dashkov and Co — M, 2002, 364p.
  6. Summarnyj obem reklamy v sredstvah ee rasprostranenija za pervye 3 kvartala 2017 goda [The total volume of advertising in the means of its distribution for the first 3 quarters of 2017] [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://www.akarussia.ru/ (accessed: 1.01.2018).
  7. «TV - auditorija: kto i kak smotrel televizor v 2015 godu ["TV audience: who and how watched TV in 2015] [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://www.totalview.ru/tv-auditoriya-kto-i-kak-smotrel-televizor-v-2015-godu/ (accessed: 02.02.2016).
  8. Feofanov O.V. Vidy reklamnogo psihologicheskogo vozdejstvija: ubezhdenie [Promotional Types of psychological influence: persuasion] [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://advertion.blogspot.ru/2008/03/blog-post_556.html#.WEquitybolaget (accessed: 11.12.2017).
  9. Jurovskij A.Ja. Priroda sovremennogo televidenija [Nature of modern television]. Uchebnik. Televizionnaja zhurnalistika [The textbook. Broadcast journalism] / edited by G. V. Kuznetsov, V. P. Zwina, A. J. Jurowski [and others] – M.: Izd-vo Mosk. UN-TA: Science, 2005. 368 p.

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