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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.1

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Baydasheva E.M. SEMANTIC FIELD OF COLOUR DESIGNATION OF “WHITE” IN THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE / E.M. Baydasheva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 94—96. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d1%81%d0%b5%d0%bc%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%b5-%d0%bf%d0%be%d0%bb%d0%b5-%d1%86%d0%b2%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%be%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%b7%d0%bd%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f/ (дата обращения: 26.10.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.1
Baydasheva E.M. SEMANTIC FIELD OF COLOUR DESIGNATION OF “WHITE” IN THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE / E.M. Baydasheva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 94—96. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.1

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Байдашева Э.М.1
1 , Астраханский государственный медицинский университет, Астрахань, Россия
СЕМАНТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОЛЕ ЦВЕТООБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ «БЕЛЫЙ» В ЯЗЫКЕ МЕДИЦИНЫ
Аннотация
Статья посвящена описанию семантического поля на примере цветообозначения термина «Белый» в языке медицины. Особое внимание уделяется основным свойствам лексико - семантического поля «Белый» в языке медицины. В статье описывается медицинские термины на материале русского, латинского и английского языка. Выявляются особенности цветовообозначения термина «белый» в русскоязычных и англоязычных медицинских словарях, раскрывается специфичные особенности медицинских терминов.
Ключевые слова: цветообозначение, термин, колоронимы, семантическое поле, медицинская терминология.
Страницы: 94 - 96

Baydasheva E.M.1
1 , Astrakhan State Medical University, Astrakhan, Russia
SEMANTIC FIELD OF COLOUR DESIGNATION OF “WHITE” IN THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE
Abstract
The article is devoted to the description of the semantic field on the example of the colour designation for the term “white” in the language of medicine. Special attention is paid to the main properties of the lexical and semantic field of “white” in the language of medicine. The article describes medical terms based on the material of Russian, Latin and English. The features of the colour designation for the term “white” in Russian and English medical dictionaries are revealed, as well as the specific features of medical terms.
Keywords: colour designation, term, colouronyms, semantic field, medical terminology.
Pages: 94 - 96
Почта авторов / Author Email: bem27[at]mail.ru

Introduction

In modern linguistics, there are a large number of methods for studying linguistic units. One of the ways of describing linguistic means is the semantic field.

German scientist Jost Trier is considered the founder of the lexical field theory. The concept of the German scientist attracted the attention of many foreign linguists (L. Weisgerber, G. Ipsen, W. Porzig, A. Rudskoger, etc.). As for the Russian linguistics, it was M.M. Pokrovsky, who paid attention to the systematic approach when analyzing vocabulary. Over time, lexical field theory became the basis for considering linguistic phenomena in the works of Yu.D. Apresyan, A.V. Bondarko, N.Yu. Karaulova, E.V. Kuznetsova, Z.P. Popova and I.A. Sternina, A.A. Ufimtseva, F.P. Filina, G.S. Shchura, etc.

According to L.A. Martyanova, “currently, the field approach has extended to a wide range of phenomena: grammar, syntax, pictorial and expressive means, etc. This contributed to the emergence of new types of fields: grammatical, grammatical-lexical, syntactic, functional-semantic, associative, etc.” [9].

The acquisition of knowledge of the terms of the specialty as well as skills and abilities to use highly specialized vocabulary to perform educational professionally oriented tasks aimed at further communication is an urgent task in teaching a foreign language to university students. Knowledge of the medical terms of colour is a separate cognitive skill for the future doctor as a professional.

The aim of the study is to identify the features of the semantics and functioning of the units of the lexical-semantic field of the colour designation for “white” in Russian, Latin and English in medical terminology.

Colour Micro-field of “White” in Medical Terminology

Let’s define the concept of a field in linguistics. There are many definitions of fields in modern literature related to linguistics. Z.N. Verdiyeva believes that “a field in linguistics is represented as a collection of words from different parts of speech, united by a common expression of one concept” [2]. According to the definition of O.S. Akhmanova: “A field is a collection of meaningful units (concepts, words) that covers a certain area of human experience.” However, the most accurate definition is as follows: “A field is a set of linguistic (mainly lexical) units, united by common content (sometimes also by a commonality of formal indicators) and reflecting the conceptual, subject or functional similarity of the designated phenomena.” [1].

There are different types of fields: semantic proper, morpho-semantic, associative, grammatical, syntagmatic. A semantic field is characterized by the presence of a common (integral) semantic feature that unites all units of the field and is usually expressed by a lexeme with a generalized meaning (archi-lexeme) and the presence of particular (differential) features (from one or more) by which the units of the field differ from each other.

We are continuing our research in this area attempting to describe the colour term “white” in medical terminology within a field.

“A colour micro-field is a lexical unit of various parts of speech, organized in a special way, containing an integral seme with a certain colour feature in an explicit or implicit form” [5, P. 8]. The colour micro-fields are the constituent parts of the colour macro-field. Next, we present a description of the semantic-structural-functional micro-field of colour designations with the general meaning “white,” organically included in the “colour” macro-field.

The micro-field of “white” is formed by the units of different lexical and grammatical classes. For example: high-quality simple adjectives (white, whitish, etc.); relative simple adjectives that entered the category of qualitative ones with the meaning of colour (whitish, pale, white, albumin); complex qualitative adjectives (white-faced, dark-white, marble-pale, white-haired, etc.); verbs, phrases (turn pale, turn gray, gray, pale, etc.); nouns (whiteness, white, gray hair, etc.), for example, the verb “turn pale.” Colours describe the skin of the characters, but can also be a signal of their bad health.

According to E.M. Baydasheva “The field of colour is a set of colours connected by a relationship of subordination with a generalized concept expressed by the archi-lexeme of colour. All colours are traditionally divided into chromatic and achromatic. For example, achromasia (pallor, similar to the “face of Hippocrates,” arising in extremely severe and chronic diseases or lack of colour vision – achromatopia), achromatic, i.e. colourless, does not decompose the white colour into the components of the spectrum, achromophilous)” [2].

The medical term “substantiaalba” (white matter) consists of the adjective white [alba, us, um-lat.yaz, white –ang.yaz] The word “white” is the main word for this colour; in the synonymous series, which includes such units in medical terminology as whitish, albuminous, albumin, etc., plays the role of a dominant. Colour designations with the integral seme “white” are used in medicine to characterize various kinds of physiological conditions, diseases, skin coloration, for example, in the English-Russian Medical Encyclopedic Dictionary by Stedman [9]:

1. albiduria [albidus-whitish+G. ouron, urine, + -ia] – discharge of whitish or white urine with low specific gravity = albinuria (clinical term);

2. albinism [albus, white, + ism] – albinism (congenital deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, iris of the eye in anatomical terminology or only in the iris of the eye due to a violation of tyrosine metabolism during melanin synthesis = congenital leukoderma = congenital leucopathia – leucopathy congenital in clinical terminology;

3. albuminoid – albim-like (a type of proteins present in keratinized and cartilaginous tissues and in the lens of the eye = scleroprotein.

One cannot but agree with the opinion of S.I. Madzhaeva, that the medical field is specific and brings additional properties to the field of general terminology. The main stages in the development of medical terminology are associated with the emergence of medical dictionaries; clarification and systematization of medical terminology; the emergence and formation of the foundations of terminological theory; activation of methodological activity in the field of medical terminology, active development of medical lexicography [8].

Colour designation of “white” symbolizes purity and sterility. For example, a popular expression to indicate doctors “people in white coats” describes clothes worn by medical personnel and is familiar to us. It has a collective meaning when the subject’s appearance indicates the profession. English physician Joseph Lister developed a theory about the antiseptic properties of the white coat and began a scientific controversy on this topic. At the beginning of the last century, during the Spanish flu epidemic in 1918, which killed about a million people, began massive introduction of white coats.

According to colourimetry, white adjusts human consciousness to self-giving, openness, completeness of thoughts, unity, intactness, etc. This means that it has a beneficial effect on patients. “People in white coats” always inspire special confidence in the patient. In addition, scientists from the UK proved that a white coat enhances the concentration of the medical staff on the work performed. It is very important in the work of a doctor. Putting on a white coat, a doctor makes fewer mistakes. Thus, the adopted uniform helps the doctor to treat work more responsibly, to concentrate on the work in a better way, to make fewer mistakes and this means saving lives.

Conclusion

Summing up, we’d like to note that colour designations with the integral seme “white” are used in medicine to characterize various kinds of physiological conditions and are part of medical terminology as terms for the nominations of various diseases, skin colour, names of blood cells, the patient’s appearance, and body characteristics. The definition of colour designation in the language of medicine plays a special role in linguistics. The lexico-semantic field with the term “white” consists of micro-fields with a core and a periphery. At the present stage, the issue of studying colour and colour designations becomes relevant with the development of new directions in cognitive linguistics, cultural linguistics.

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