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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.7

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Razuvaeva T.N. THE SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS WITH THE COMPONENT "OUT" IN MODERN ENGLISH / T.N. Razuvaeva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 82—84. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d1%81%d0%b5%d0%bc%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%b0%d1%8f-%d1%85%d0%b0%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%ba%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b8%d0%ba%d0%b0-%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%ba%d0%be%d1%82%d0%be/ (дата обращения: 26.10.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.7
Razuvaeva T.N. THE SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS WITH THE COMPONENT "OUT" IN MODERN ENGLISH / T.N. Razuvaeva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 82—84. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.7

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Разуваева Т.Н.1
1Доцент, кандидат филологических наук, Институт Филологии, Журналистики и МКК Южного Федерального Университета, Ростов-на-Дону, Россия
СЕМАНТИЧЕСКАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА НЕКОТОРЫХ АНГЛИЙСКИХ ФРАЗОВЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ С КОМПОНЕНТОМ "OUT" В СОВРЕМЕННОМ АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Аннотация
Статья посвящена изучению основных характеристик фразовых глаголов с компонентом "out" в современном английском языке. Все мировые языки на протяжении своей истории подвергаются многочисленным изменениям. Язык развивается и изменяется вместе с его носителями, их культурой, менталитетом и ценностями. На развитие языка влияет множество факторов. В настоящее время проблема описания фразовых глаголов с различными компонентами находится в центре внимания лингвистов. Особый интерес представляет проблема употребления и способов перевода фразовых глаголов с различными компонентами в современном английском языке. В центре внимания статьи находятся некоторые особенности функционирования английских фразовых глаголов с компонентом "out. Актуальность работы обусловлена интересом лингвистической науки к современному состоянию фразовых глаголов, выведению их классификаций, особенностей семантики, а также их употребления и перевода. Изучение некоторых особенностей и характеристик данных фразовых глаголов может способствовать решению этой проблемы. Автор анализирует различные подходы к классификации фразовых глаголов. Особое внимание уделяется семантической характеристике данных фразовых глаголов.
Ключевые слова: фразовые глаголы, лексико-грамматическая единица, семантическая характеристика, смысловая единица, семантическая группа, компонент "out".
Страницы: 82 - 84

Razuvaeva T.N.1
1Associate Professor (docent), PhD in Philology, Institute of Philology, Journalism and Intercultural Communication of the Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
THE SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS WITH THE COMPONENT "OUT" IN MODERN ENGLISH
Abstract
This article attempts to shed new light on one of the most notoriously challenging aspects of modern English- the English phrasal verbs. The study is devoted to the study of the some main characteristics of phrasal verbs with the component "out" in modern English. All world languages have undergone numerous changes throughout their history. The language evolves and changes along with its speakers, their culture, mentality and values. Many factors influence the development of a language. Nowadays, the problem of describing phrasal verbs with different components is in the focus of linguists' attention. Of particular interest is the problem of using and translating phrasal verbs with different components in modern English. The focus of the article is on some peculiarities of functioning of English phrasal verbs with the component "out". The research relevance of the work is due to the interest of linguistic science to phrasal verbs, their classifications, the peculiarities of semantics, as well as their use and translation. The study of some peculiarities and characteristics of these phrasal verbs may contribute to solving this problem. The author analyzes different approaches to the classification of phrasal verbs. Special attention is paid to the semantic characteristics of these phrasal verbs.
Keywords: phrasal verbs, lexicogrammatical unit, semantic characteristics, semantic unit, semantic group, "out" component.
Pages: 82 - 84
Почта авторов / Author Email: trazuvaeva[at]yandex.ru

Teaching phrasal verbs is a difficult area and  contextualization has an important positive effect on the ability of the students to decipher the correct meaning of a phrasal verb [8, P.114]. As documented by D. Bolinger, phrasal verbs represent a complex area of English vocabulary [1]. Phrasal verbs in English are syntactically defined as combination of verbs and prepositions or particles but semantically their meanings are generally not the sum of their parts [9, P.65]. Some linguists also point out that the problem with phrasal verbs lies in their second element which is most of the times called a particle and a particle can be either a preposition or an adverb [2, P.57].  As stated by O. Vorobiova and L. Saienko, phrasal verbs represent one of the main features of the English verbal word formation. They consist of a monolexemic verb and a postpositive component of adverbial and prepositional nature which forms with a verb a relatively stable semantic and syntactic combination owing to the weakening of its adverbial or prepositional function [10, P.2].

Many scientists make more specific analyses on this interesting field of study. According to D. Gardner and M. Davies, a more specific analysis indicates that only 25 phrasal verbs account for nearly one third of all phrasal‐verb occurrences in the British National Corpus, and 100 phrasal verbs account for more than one half of all such items. Subsequent semantic analyses show that these 100 high‐frequency phrasal verb forms have potentially 559 variant‐meaning senses [6, P.339].

Some linguists such as J.S. DeCarrico follow the opinion of R.A Jacobs [7, P.272] and suggest dividing English phrasal verbs into four different categories, based on transitivity and separability: 1) Intransitive; 2) Nonseparable transitive; 3) Optionally separable transitive; 4) Obligatorily separable transitive [5, P.69]. Other scholars apply cognitive linguistic approach to learning and teaching phrasal verbs [4, P.133].

The semantic approach to the definition of phrasal verbs also relates to the understanding of the meaning of the particle and the reasons for using a certain particle. Whether the particle is a purely idiomatic unit or consists of a cluster of related and understandable meanings remains controversial. In learning and teaching English as a foreign language, these questions remain unanswered. In this connection, many phrasal verbs are called "idiomatic": their meaning cannot be derived from the constituent elements of the verb and the particle.

Thus, the semantic and syntactic characteristics of phrasal verbs indicate the complexity of this linguistic phenomenon. It is also reflected at the level of their identifying as linguistic objects.

So, at the moment phrasal verbs are widely used both in colloquial speech and in literature, law, printing, various documentation and many other spheres. This is due to the fact that many phrasal verbs have moved from one stylistic layer to another, thus changing the sphere of use, as well as acquiring new meanings and/or losing the old ones. Some phrasal verbs have become more commonly used than their synonyms (verbs).

To analyze the functioning of phrasal verbs with the component out in modern English we chose the novel "The Terrible Privacy of Maxwell Sim" by Jonathan Coe [3]. Jonathan Coe is a famous contemporary British writer who continues the tradition of English satire and denounces the state of English society, so the language analysis  of his work is interesting from the linguistic point of view. The novel reflects the contemporary problems of most people, namely loneliness in the world of technology, the lack of real relatives and friends, systematic stress, and reassessment of their lives.

The semantic analysis of 72 phrasal verbs with the out component taken from the book by J. Coe [3] made it possible to identify 9 meanings of phrasal verbs and 1 group of phrasal verbs with different meanings that were not included in the 9 main ones.

Below is a list of phrasal verbs with the out component, distributed in semantic groups:

1. 25 phrasal verbs with the meaning to leave. e.g. be out, book out, drive out, log out, move out, nip out, pull out etc. Chris and Miranda will be out, any second now [3, P.139]. I’m in a hurry, so I have to book out right now [3, P.17]. Government forces have driven the rebels out of the eastern district [3,P.26]. Don’t log out of your account yet—I want to check something [3, P. 33]. She’ll be back in a minute — she’s just nipped out to the shops [3, P. 47] … Watford isn't the sort of place you dream of moving to all your life, that doesn't make it the sort of place you can't wait to move out of … [3, P.5] Joe had been pulled out of the nettle pit [3, P.187] …she'd like to drive out into the county with me on the weekend [28, P.4].

2. 9 phrasal verbs with the meaning outside anything (not inside). e.g. dine  out, eat out, keep out, kick out etc. I was dining out alone since my father had, for various weird reasons of his own, refused to come out with me, even though this was my last evening in Australia [3, P.1]. Lindsay reached into her handbag and took out a glossy white notebook [3, P.56].

3. 4 phrasal verbs with the meaning to become known to the public. e.g. act  out, find out, leak out, turn out .. a very sad story it turned out to be [28, P.4] … until they'd found out if there was a doctor on the plane [28, P.16].

4. 2 phrasal verbs with the meaning to distribute, supply. e.g. give out, hand out. First of all she handed out the cups of tea [28, P.31].

5. 4 phrasal verbs with the meaning of the volume of voice or sound. e.g. bawl out, laugh out, pour out, say out. I said out loud [28, P.119]. She laughed out loud [28, P.259] …he began pouring out confessions and confidences… [28, P.15]

6. 10 phrasal verbs with the meaning to end, to finish. e.g. block out, cancel out, die out etc. …it actually cancelled out the environmental benefits of the hybrid engine [28, P.32].

7. 3 phrasal verbs with the meaning to be unconscious. e.g. black out, knock out, pass out. I don’t remember any more because I passed out by then [28, P.46].

8. 2 phrasal verbs with the meaning to begin. e.g. break out, start out. … two of them were involved in this big argument which had started out as a discussion of global warming [28, P.2].

9. 5 phrasal verbs with the meaning to delete or to be deleted. e.g. cross out, empty out, fish out, miss out, throw out.

10. 8 phrasal verbs with other meanings. e.g. chill out, hang out, lock out, stand out etc. …this burst of colour, making her stand out like a fiercely burning beacon… [3, P.19] …this aura slowly flickered out [28, P.34].

It should be noted that phrasal verbs with an out component are also characterized by polysemy, so the same form of this lexical-grammatical phenomenon can be used in different context situations.

In conclusion we can state that the above examples of the meanings of phrasal verbs with the out component show that the main meaning lies in external orientation. Most often, these verbs move towards the external direction both in the direct (out) and figurative (spread) meanings. In addition, phrasal verbs with the out component can indicate the completeness of a process, termination. In some cases, the out component does not change the main meaning of the verb, but only indicates the direction of action.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Bolinger D. L. M. The phrasal verb in English / Bolinger D. L. M. – Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.
  2. Busuttil P. Phrasal verbs: A contribution towards a more accurate definition / Busuttil P. //ASp. la revue du GERAS. – 1995. – №. 7-10. – P. 57-71.
  3. Coe J. The terrible privacy of Maxwell Sim / Coe J. – Vintage, 2012.
  4. Condon N. How cognitive linguistic motivations influence the learning of phrasal verbs / Condon N. //Applications of cognitive linguistics. – 2008. – Vol. 6. – P. 133.
  5. DeCarrico J. S. The structure of English: Studies in form and function for language teaching / DeCarrico J. S. – University of Michigan Press/ESL, 2000. – Vol. 1. – P.69.
  6. Gardner D. Pointing out frequent phrasal verbs: A corpus‐based analysis / Gardner D., Davies M. //TESOL quarterly. – 2007. – Vol. 41. – №. 2. – P. 339-359.
  7. Jacobs R. A. English syntax: A grammar for English language professionals / Jacobs R. A. – New York : Oxford University Press, 1995. – P. 272.
  8. Mart C. T. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs / Mart C. T. //English language teaching. – 2012. – Vol. 5. – №. 6. – P. 114-118.
  9. Tu Y. Sorting out the most confusing English phrasal verbs / Tu Y., Roth D. //* SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics–Volume 1: Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume 2: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2012). – 2012. – P. 65-69.
  10. Vorobiova O. English Phrasal Verbs: Derivation and Semantics / Vorobiova O., Saienko L. //Publishing House “Baltija Publishing”. – 2019. – P. 1-16.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Bolinger D. L. M. The phrasal verb in English / Bolinger D. L. M. – Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.
  2. Busuttil P. Phrasal verbs: A contribution towards a more accurate definition / Busuttil P. //ASp. la revue du GERAS. – 1995. – №. 7-10. – P. 57-71.
  3. Coe J. The terrible privacy of Maxwell Sim / Coe J. – Vintage, 2012.
  4. Condon N. How cognitive linguistic motivations influence the learning of phrasal verbs / Condon N. //Applications of cognitive linguistics. – 2008. – Vol. 6. – P. 133.
  5. DeCarrico J. S. The structure of English: Studies in form and function for language teaching / DeCarrico J. S. – University of Michigan Press/ESL, 2000. – Vol. 1. – P.69.
  6. Gardner D. Pointing out frequent phrasal verbs: A corpus‐based analysis / Gardner D., Davies M. //TESOL quarterly. – 2007. – Vol. 41. – №. 2. – P. 339-359.
  7. Jacobs R. A. English syntax: A grammar for English language professionals / Jacobs R. A. – New York : Oxford University Press, 1995. – P. 272.
  8. Mart C. T. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs / Mart C. T. //English language teaching. – 2012. – Vol. 5. – №. 6. – P. 114-118.
  9. Tu Y. Sorting out the most confusing English phrasal verbs / Tu Y., Roth D. //* SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics–Volume 1: Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume 2: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2012). – 2012. – P. 65-69.
  10. Vorobiova O. English Phrasal Verbs: Derivation and Semantics / Vorobiova O., Saienko L. //Publishing House “Baltija Publishing”. – 2019. – P. 1-16.

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