The object of the study of present-day linguistics is various types of texts. One of the relatively new types is media text, the study of which is very relevant at the moment. The novelty of the presented research lies in the fact that the article not only examines the features of this type of text but also indicates their influencing potential. Studying media text as a special type of hypertext, the author of the article uses text analysis and believes that the results obtained can be used further in the framework of media linguistics and journalism.
Modern media linguistics is undoubtedly one of the most rapidly developing branches of linguistics. At the same time special attention within its framework is paid to the topic of the influence of the media text on the recipient. The Internet as the main "habitat" of the media text is distinguished by the widest coverage of the audience. Most of the traditional media take this fact into account and have their own sites and pages in social networks, blogs and microblogs . Such a number of channels for disseminating information makes the news text more effective, which, in turn, allows us to speak about the strengthening of its influencing potential. In order to enhance the potential of the influence, the authors of media texts (subjects of speech) use the existing system of techniques and strategies that help carry out such an impact. Thus, the created text performs two functions: informational and communicative [1, P. 82].
Speaking about the influencing potential of the text, many linguists consider first of all such phenomena as speech influence and speech manipulation [7, P. 10]. At the same time, there are points of view that separate these concepts and that consider these terms as synonymous. I. A. Sternin believes that speech manipulation is an integral component of speech impact. The author defines these concepts as follows: 1) speech impact influences the addressee through speech in order to induce them to consciously agree with the point of view of another person or to make a decision to perform an action; 2) manipulation influences the addressee in order to induce them unconsciously, against their desire, to perform any action, change their opinion or behavior [8, P. 36].
Manipulation in mass media communication means that the recipient is “persuaded by the reality of the circumstances and events drawn by the addressee” . This kind of suggestion in the Internet environment is used by the mass media consciously and purposefully. Here we can speak about the psychological and speech impact, called "speech manipulation".
Аccording to P. B. Parshin, speech influence should be considered as an impact on the consciousness and behavior of an individual and / or a group using different speech means; in a narrower sense this is the production of messages with an increased influencing potential that affects the addressee using sign systems [6, P. 35]. It should be noted here that the media text thanks to modern technologies stands out as it includes not only the verbal component, that is, it is polycode . One of the "codes" of such text is hypertext.
In the article we consider the influencing potential of the microblog text taking into account its linguistic features and type-forming characteristics.
Hypertext is a text arranged in such a way that it turns into a system, a hierarchy of texts, while simultaneously constituting a unity and a multitude of texts [2, P. 10].
Hypertextuality is a system of connection between individual Internet resources by means of hyperlinks. Hypertextuality is a distinguishing characteristic of online publications and influences the way information is organized and presented in online publications, determining the way to work with it. The user gets the opportunity for more active and selective navigation both within the publication and beyond. The form and content of the Internet source depend on the hypertextual nature of the medium. The ability to instantly jump from source to source using hyperlinks increases the completeness and reliability of information, giving the reader freedom of choice. “In addition, the design of hypertext requires taking into account the specifics of the thinking and perception of the recipient” [9, P. 213].
The nonlinear and linear presentation of information, which characterizes hypertextuality, differ in that the linear text has a clear sequential structure, and the nonlinear text (hypertext) has a mosaic structure. Interpretation which takes place in the processes of understanding and comprehension makes both a text and hypertext equal in rights; in the process of interpretation, a new meaning is generated, which differs from the original author's intention. The meaning laid down by the author in a linear text is extracted by the reader in the process of a mental dialogue, the interpretation takes place depending on the background knowledge and intellectual experience of the recipient. Hypertext, on the other hand, acquires a linear structure in accordance with the recipient’s reading and the author's intention. Thus, “when reading hypertext, there is a process of double interpretation — the author’s design of the structure and the author’s design of the meaning” [2, P. 20].
Considering hypertext from the linguistic point of view, the way of organizing subtexts (segments) in hypertext should probably be designated not as non-linear but as multi-linear. This can be explained by the fact that, on the one hand, hypertext directly consists of linear subtexts; on the other hand, the author, by "embedding" links, determines the sequence of reading individual subtexts.
A hyperlink is the main element of the hypertext structure, a connecting link between its fragments. The concept of a hyperlink is of great importance for understanding the coherence and integrity of hypertext on the Internet. It is customary to distinguish within a hypertext link: a) the source of the link represented by a fragment of a text or an image, activating which the user displays the desired text or image; b) the object of the link, that is, the text or image that is activated when clicking on the link.
It is difficult to consider the semantic integrity of the entire hypertext since the integrity is associated with the unity of the topic, while separate coherent fragments of the hypertext may have different topics. Such a property of hypertext as its informativeness is realized through the use of links. On the one hand, the information content and the amount of information received depends on the active use of links by the recipient of the hypertext in the process of reading it, on the other hand, on how convenient the interface of the page is, easy and fast navigation between the texts connected by links. It is noted that the information content of the hypertext increases if you change the color of the nodes already read (the hyperlinks already used).
The main feature of the structure of news microblog is the presentation of the news text in one line which is a semantic center. Each verbal message is accompanied by a hyperlink that directs the addressee to the publication's website where the full text of the article is posted.
However, despite the fact that the text of the microblog is classified as a small-sized text, "such a text clearly has its information content, its cognitive background is the aim of its creation, its general concept and the result of creation in a special linguistic form as a special semantic space" [3, P. 78].
All of the above features of the media text as a hypertext undoubtedly affect its influencing potential. On the one hand, the brevity of the microblog text leaves room for the recipient to independently interpret the facts, makes it possible to "think out" some of the information that is not actually mentioned in the news text. Thus, the readers themselves complete, unfold the text in accordance with their psychological characteristics, background knowledge, and emotional state. For example, headline news channel RT (Russia Today) tweets about “Chaos and arrests in Belarus as anti-government protestors clash with authorities”. The post is seemingly neutral and factual and reports about the events in the country after the dubious presidential elections. The text leaves it to the reader to interpret the information.
On the other hand, the author of a media text, including the text of a microblog, can use hyperlinks to expand the information field. The author of the text, giving the reader such freedom, sets the direction as if "pushing" the subscriber in the desired direction. The nature of such links can be subjective, hyperlinks can one-sidedly cover the analyzed event, leading the reader in the right direction. Such information, at first glance, objectively sets forth the facts, but is in fact the subjective point of view of the author and can be manipulative. The abovementioned tweet, for instance, is followed by a hyperlink to a full-size article of the same news agency, which contains detailed information. The article itself is definitely pro-government and forces a certain opinion on the reader.
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