Art#: 4681
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.25

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Khomyakov S.A. CORRELATION OF SUGGESTED VALUES IN RUSSIAN AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES IN THE SYSTEM OF TEACHING RUSSIAN AS FOREIGN LEANGUAGE / S.A. Khomyakov // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 111—117. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d0%ba%d0%be%d1%80%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%bb%d1%8f%d1%86%d0%b8%d1%8f-%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%bb%d0%be%d0%b6%d0%bd%d0%be-%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%b4%d0%b5%d0%b6%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85-%d0%b7%d0%bd%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b5/ (дата обращения: 26.10.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.25
Khomyakov S.A. CORRELATION OF SUGGESTED VALUES IN RUSSIAN AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES IN THE SYSTEM OF TEACHING RUSSIAN AS FOREIGN LEANGUAGE / S.A. Khomyakov // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 111—117. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.24.4.25

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Хомяков С.А.1
1 , Московский государственный медико-стоматологический университет им.А.И. Евдокимова, Москва, Россия
КОРРЕЛЯЦИЯ ПРЕДЛОЖНО-ПАДЕЖНЫХ ЗНАЧЕНИЙ В РУССКОМ И ПЕРСИДСКОМ ЯЗЫКАХ В СИСТЕМЕ ПРЕПОДАВАНИЯ РКИ
Аннотация
В статье анализируются и сопоставляются предложно-падежные значения в русском и персидском языке в системе преподавания в иностранной аудитории, изучающей русский язык как неродной и владеющей фарси. При сопоставлении глагольного управления отмечается зависимость выражения конкретного значения от предлога в персидском языке в отличие от русского. Актуальность данного исследования определена отсутствием подобного рода сопоставительного анализа в контексте преподавания русского как иностранного. В результате сравнительного анализа были установлены основные сходства и различия в значениях, которые передают русские шесть падежей и их аналогичная семантическая реализация в персидском языке. Предлагаются способы решения проблем, встающих перед преподавателями, работающими с иранскими студентами, дается таблица самых сложных глаголов с предложно-падежной системой.
Ключевые слова: русский как иностранный, предложно-падежные значения, фарси, семантика падежей, методика преподавания.
Страницы: 111 - 117

Khomyakov S.A.1
1 , Moscow state medical and dental University. A. I. Evdokimova, Moscow, Russia
CORRELATION OF SUGGESTED VALUES IN RUSSIAN AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES IN THE SYSTEM OF TEACHING RUSSIAN AS FOREIGN LEANGUAGE
Abstract
The article analyzes and compares prepositional-case meanings in Russian and Persian in the system of teaching in a foreign audience that studies Russian as a foreign language and speaks Farsi. When comparing the verbal control, the dependence of the expression of a specific meaning on a preposition in Persian, in contrast to Russian, is noted. The relevance of this study is determined by the lack of such a comparative analysis in the context of teaching Russian as a foreign language. As a result of a comparative analysis, the main similarities and differences in meanings were established, which are conveyed by the Russian six cases and their similar semantic implementation in the Persian language. Ways to solve the problems faced by teachers working with Iranian students are proposed, and a table of the most complex verbs with a prepositional and case system is given.
Keywords: Russian as a foreign language, prepositional-case meanings, Farsi, case semantics, teaching methods.
Pages: 111 - 117
Почта авторов / Author Email: khomjakov.sergey[at]mail.ru

Introduction

Verb control (type, mood) and the semantics of cases, as well as the determination of the factors of their use in specific constructions is one of the most promising areas in linguistics, and many researchers, relying on certain meanings that are expressed in specific communicative situations and syntaxemes, have built their classifications , which was reflected in the works of A.M. Peshkovsky [7], A.A. Shakhmatova [10], G.A. Zolotova [4, P. 118], M.V. Vsevolodova [2], E.V. Paducheva [6, P.18].

The purpose of this article is to point out some of the features and differences in the verbal management in Russian and Persian, which will allow the teacher not only to form grammatical skills and prevent mistakes, but also to explain to the student what the difference between the languages is. In addition, the article will be useful for those who start teaching Russian as a foreign language.

Among the various types of phrases — coordination, adjoining and control — the most complex are prepositional-case constructions, in which close — sometimes synonymous — meanings can be expressed in different cases (for example, I live in a house, on the street, behind a house, under a bridge, where the implementation specific case is predetermined by both the semantics of the case and the meaning of the verb), which causes great difficulties for foreigners [9, P.183-185]. However, it happens that in the student's native language, certain case meanings are absent or a different construction is used to implement it. For successful work, the teacher needs to point out both the similarities in prepositional-case constructions in the native language, and their differences.

One of the most difficult tasks for a linguist is to describe the syntax of a language in terms of form, meaning and unity of all components, thanks to which the meaning of the entire sentence is formed. In synthetic Russian, the unity of morphology and syntax is of great importance, which is explained by the use of such tools as the "model of the subject perspective of the statement", "the concept of the communicative register of speech" and "taxis as a technique of interpredicative relations in the text» [5, P.108].

Speaking about the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language, it is necessary to say about syntaxemes — free and connected — in the system of the linguistic model. In the Persian language there are related syntaxemes, the unity of which is prompted by the logic of their use, however, the existing differences in prepositional-case relations can cause enormous difficulties for a native speaker of Persian.

At the initial stage of training, each case is entered in the meanings that are necessary to solve the most simple communication problems. The teacher begins teaching students the cases in a strict sequence that can be called traditional. Following the proposed and comprehensive classification of case semantics proposed by G.A. Zolotova, let us take only those values that the teacher talks about at the initial stage of training.

1. The nominative case, as in Russian, indicates the subject of the action.

1.1. nominative (various names) Kievskaya station: истга «Киевская»-ایستگاه کیوسکایا)

б) predictable subject (student solves a problem: данешамуз хальмиконад масале ра-دانش آموز حل می‌کند مسئله را)

1.2. subject-carrier of a passive predicative feature (Documents are signed by the director: (Мадареки  эмзамишаванд тавасотэ модир-

مدارک امضا میشنود توسط مدیر)

1.3. the object is the causator of an emotional or intellectual value relationship (I liked the film: Фильм  дустдарам-فیلم دوست دارم )

1.4. predicate in qualification-assessment models (Water is the basis of all life: Аб асасе хаме джандаран хаст-

آب اساس همه ی جانداران است)

е) predicate in models characterizing the environment (It is raining outside: дар хиабан баран аст-در خیابان باران است)

1.5. vocative (Maxim, where are you going ?:Максим, куджа мири?-

ماکسیما کجا میری ؟)

2. The accusative case is given in the following meanings [8, P. 4-8]: time (exact, days of the week, time period, as well as the time spent on the commission or completion of the action), movement, object of the action. There are no difficulties with temporal expression in prepositional-case constructions in Russian and Persian — you can easily point out the similarities in use. In the Persian language there are no so many verbs of movement, and any movement in space is conveyed by the verb go (равтан – infinitive). In addition, there is no difference between the prepositions v / na to indicate the place of movement (I go to the house and I go to the street; * Ман мирам бе хане-من میرم به خانه: Ман мирам бе хиабун-من میرم به خیابان). However, difficulties are caused by some verbs, which after themselves require the accusative case in Russian, and in Persian there is a different realization of the meaning: for example, through a prepositional-case construction. The following meanings of the Accusative case are distinguished at the initial stage of teaching Russian as a foreign language:

2.1. tempora in various meanings (I read it three days; 5 minutes before the start: пишаз 5 дагиге та шуру-پیش از پنج دقیقه تا شروع)

2.2. intensive (every hour, every Wednesday: хар саат-هر ساعت; хар чаршанбэ-هر چهارشنبه)

2.3. action object (build bridge: пол сахтан-پل ساختن)

2.4. directives (to come to the city: амадан бе шахр-آمدن به شهر)

2.5. transitive (drive through the city:убур кардан аз шахр-عبور کردن از شهر)

2.6. tool (look in the mirror: диде шодан дар айне-دیده شدن در آینه)

2.7. trasgive (included in: варед шодан дар сахтар-وارد شدن در ساختار)

2.8. quantitative (twice: до бар-دوبار)

2.9. qualitative (striped shirt: лебас чохархане-لباسِ چهارخانه)

Some meanings are given only at the level of memorization or examples.

3. The prepositional case is used to express the following meanings: location in space (static) (My friend lives in the house = Дуст ман  дар хане зендеги миконад-دوست من در خانه زندگی میکند); object of conversation or perception; vehicle; time (week, month, year) (last year=дар сале гозаште-در سال گذشته). The main meanings possessed by the prepositional case can be presented in the following sequence:

3.1. locative (in Moscow, in the park, in the house: the gift of Mosco-در مسکو,дар парк-در پارک,дар хане-در خانه)

3.2. deliberative (about brother, about life: дарбаре барадар-درباره ی برادر; дарбаре зендеги-درباره ی زندگی)

3.3. temporific (in August, last century: дар агуст-در آگوست; дар гарне гозаште-در قرن گذشته)

3.4. thematic (the program does not cover: дар барнаме диде немишавад-

در برنامه دیده نمیشود)

3.5. physical or emotional state (in anger, in sleep, in anger: дар хашм-در خشم ,дар хаб-در خواب ,дар асабанийат-در عصبانیت)

3.6. a feature component denoting the outer covering of a face or object (in a shirt, in socks: дар пирахан-در پیراهن, дар джураб-در جوراب )

ж) limiting (used in chemistry, not accepted in relationships: эстефаденемишавад дар шимми-در شیمی استفاده نمیشود)

3.7. mediation (by boat, by car: ба гайег-با قایق,ба машин-با ماشین)

и) causative (provided that: дар шарайете-در شرایط,дар ноэ-در نوع)

4. The dative case at the initial stage of learning is given in the following values: age, addressee of the message; specialty, occupation, time (end of action by a certain date; cyclicity (on Mondays = дошанбе ха-دوشنبه ها / хар (every) дошанбе-هر دوشنبه)); source of information movement in open space (I'm walking down the street = Ман мирам аз хиабун-

من از خیابان میرم); movement (to something or to somebody (I go to a friend = Ман мирам пише дуст-من میرم پیش دوست). The main meanings of the dative case can be presented in the following sequence:

4.1. addressee (letter to mom: наме бе мадар-نامه به مادر)

4.2. subject of any state (I'm dreaming, I'm tired of: ман хаб мибинам-من خواب میبینم,ман немихам-من نمیخوام)

4.3. subject of causal action (I'm bored: барам хасте конандас-

برام خسته کننده است )

4.4. subject-carrier of age (I am 20 years old: Ман 20 (бист) саламе-

من بیست سالمه)

4.5. modal value (I need, I had to, I succeeded = correlative value I have to: Ман лазем дарам-من لازم دارم,Ман Нияз дарам-من نیاز دارم,Ман даряфт миконам-من دریافت میکنم)

4.6. directives (come to a friend, to the house: рафтан пишет дуст-رفتن پیش دوست,пише ханэ-پیش خانه)

4.7. correlative (glasses to face: ейнак бе сурат-عینک به صورت)

4.8. intensive (came to the conclusion: расидан бе натидже-رسیدن به نتیجه)

4.9. transitive (along the road, along the bottom: аз рах-از راه,рузане-روزانه)

4.10. rubricative (in chemistry: шими-شیمی)

4.11. causative (by mistake, unknowingly: бе эштебах-به اشتباه)

5. The instrumental case is given in the following meanings: together (with somebody or something); compatibility; tool, tool (I write with a pen and pencil); profession (I work as a teacher); way of travel (I travel by train;); location in space (The book lies next to / under / above / behind / in front of the table); congratulations (Happy New Year!сале но мобарак-سال نو مبارک!). It is with the grammatical expression of the meaning that most of the errors are associated: in the Persian language, the accusative case is used without any prepositions instead of the instrumental case. The main meanings of the instrumental case can be presented in the following sequence:

5.1. temporific (day, day) (рузане — روزانه(adjective), собу), but: from new day = рузе джадид-روز جدید

5.2. locative (behind / in front of / above / under the house, between trees: пошт-پشت/джолое-جلو/балае-بالا/зире-زیر— хане-خانه,бейне дарха-بین در ها)

5.3. instrumental (do it yourself: ба дастхае ход-با دست‌های خود)

5.4. mediation (go by train: равтон ба гатар-رفتن با قطار)

5.5. passive models (signed by the director: эмза мишавад тавасоте модир-امضا میشود توسط مدیر)

5.6. models with a quality value (differ in character, have intelligence, are characterized by decency: мотамаезбудан-متمایز بودن)

5.7. object (run a factory, rule oneself, be interested in music, do chemistry: конторолкардан кархане-کنترل کردن کار خانه)

5.8. objective-quantitative value (filled with water: поршодан ба аб-پر شدن با آب)

5.9. object-instrumental (wave hand: текан даданэ даст-تکان دادن دست)

5.10. deliberative meaning (sore throat, pain). There are no equivalents in Persian language.

5.11. the object-causator of an emotional relationship (to be proud of a person: эвтахаркардан бе адам-افتخار کردن به آدم )

5.12. directives (follow the leader, for the thoughts: донбалкардан модира-دنبال کردن مدیر)

5.13. temporific (at lunch, between exams: габл аз Назар,бейне эмтеханат-قبل از نهار ، بین امتحانات)

5.14. finitive (for a gift, for flowers: барае кадо-برای کادو,барае голь-برای گل)

5.15. causative (for lack of a handle: бехатере набуд ходкар-بخاطر نبود خودکار)

5.16. committing (with love, with joy: ба эшг-با عشق, ба шади-با شادی)

5.17. modal qualification of action (rest is prohibited: эстрахаткардан дар нахие мамнуэ-استراحت کردن در منطقه ممنوعه)

5.18. subject-partner, accomplice (to argue with the father: шартбандикардан ба педар-شرط بندی کردن با پدر)

5.19. deliberative-causative (congratulate you on the holiday: табрикговтан джашн  бе шума-تبریک گفتن جشن به شما ).

6. At the initial stage of training, students are introduced to the following meanings of the Genitive case: belonging of something to someone; lack of something or somebody (after the word no); after 2,3, 4 + Gen. case (units), after 5-20 + Gen. case (plural) reverse movement (from something or from somebody) after a lot, a little, a little, a lot, how much, etc. + Gen. case (plural); comparative design; date (number) of the event (no preposition); event time; object / subject attribute; reason (because of, from), while the main semantic load is carried by prepositions. The main meanings of the genitive case can be presented in the following sequence:

6.1. date (1st May 1995: авале май сале 1995-اول مای ۱۹۹۵)

6.2. number (three houses:се хане-سه خانه (1.Nominative case))

6.3. in negative constructs (there was no book: кетаб надаштан-کتاب نداشتن)

6.4. affiliation (friend's book: кетабе дустам-کتاب دوستم)

6.5. trait carrier (beauty of nature: зибаие табнат-زیبایی طبیعت)

6.6. precomparative (above me: боландтар аз ман-بلند تر از من)

6.7. sign (without help: бедуне кумак-بدون کمک)

6.8. destination (for parents:барае валедейн-برای والدین)

6.9. finitive (for speed: барае сорат-برای سرعت)

6.10. directives:

6.10.1. with an endpoint (home: та хане-تا خانه)

6.10.2. with a starting point (from home: аз хане-از خانه)

6.10.3. starting point (from home: аз хане-از خانه)

6.10.4. point with an obstacle (because of the cabinet: аз поште комод-از پشت کمد), (from under the bed: аз зире тахт-از زیر تخت)

6.11. temporative

6.11.1. limited time (before breakfast: та сопхане-تا صبحانه)

6.11.2. from the starting point (from lunch, from the lesson: аз нахар-ازنهار, аз класс-از کلاس)

6.12. dimension (up to 30 degrees, up to two meters: та си дарадже-تا سی درجه, та до метр-تا دو متر)

6.13. intensive (until the end: та ахер-تا آخر)

6.14. fabricated (from metal, from apple juice: аз ахан-از آهن, аз абе сиб-از آب سیب)

6.15. sursiv (from school diary: аз дафтар нумре-از دفتر نمره)

6.16. generative (from a family of doctors: аз ханевадее доктор-از خانواده ی دکتر )

6.17. instrument (from a pistol: аз тофанг-از تفنگ )

6.18. каузатив (out of fear, out of hunger, out of boredom: аз тарс-از ترس, аз гороснеги-از گرسنگی, аз хастеги-از خستگی)

6.19. locative (between houses, opposite the house, among the room: бейне ханеха-بین خانه ها, руберуе хуне-رو به روی خانه, васате отаг-وسط اتاق)

6.20. destination (leaf from a tree: барг аз дерахт-برگ از درخت)

6.21. subject of the sender (from parents: аз валедейн-از والدین)

6.22. potensive (hide from children: махфикардан аз бачаха-مخفی کردن از بچه ها)

6. 23. distinguish (a book from a manual: Ман мидонам тафовот ра)

6. 24. directives (go against the wind: рафтан дар халяфе джахате бад-

رفتن در خلاف جهت باد )

6.25. deliberate (against weapons, war: зеде селах-ضد سلاح, —ضد جنگ)

6.26. directives (from Russian to Persian: аз руси бе фарси-از روسی به فارسی)

6.27. locative (at / near the house: пише хане-پیش خانه / наздик хане-نزدیک خانه)

6.28. the subject of the state (I have happiness: ман хошхалам-من خوشحالم)

In Russian, when expressing the meaning of an object, the accusative case is most often used without a preposition in the presence of a transitive verb, in the presence of a return verb with the same meaning — the creative case, in Persian these meanings are transmitted using the prepositional case construction, mainly the preposition "к" and the dative case or preposition "из" and the genitive case. The main semantic load is carried by prepositions. For foreigners who learn Russian and have the grammatical system of their mother tongue as the main one, the main difficulty, along with the endings, is different prepositions than in their native language. Thus, the teacher will face certain mistakes (especially at the initial stage) that will be caused not by a lack of knowledge, but by the influence of the grammatical system of the mother tongue. In particular, Persian may contain both the meaning of the object and the cause, so the teacher, building an exercise system, must first select lexical material, the prepositional and case constructions of which coincide with the native language (for example, the accusative case without a preposition), then select verbs that use the creative case with the preposition "c" in At the same time, it is very important to give a synonymous meaning with a grammatical difference when explaining the value that the case carries.  

The main meanings of the creative case are always expressed, unlike in the Russian language, with the help of the preposition "c" — at this point, the teacher faces a difficult task — to form a skill that will not mix two grammatical systems. An important distinguishing feature of an expression of a certain meaning is the presence of a preposition in Persian, but certain difficulties can arise when expressing the same meaning by means of the same preposition: for example, in Persian, the preposition "from" denotes both directives and the addressee. If the pretext is used correctly, the student may use the wrong case form in Russian, which will also be caused by the influence of the mother tongue.

The main difficulties in most cases are the presence of a preposition in Persian in the absence of one in Russian. Below is a comparative table, thanks to which a teacher working with Iranian students will not only be able to predict an error, forms certain competencies, but also systematize verbs, and decide to include them in a particular stage of study.

 

глагол

Падеж в русском языке

Падеж в персидском языке

влиять

На + 4 В.п.

(без предлога) + 4 В.п.

влюбляться

В + 4 В.п.

(без предлога) + 4 В.п.

Выходить замуж

За + 4 В.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

голосовать

За + 4 В.п.

(без предлога) + 3 Д.п.

догадываться

О + 6 П.п.

(без предлога) + 4 В.п.

допускать

4 В.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

жаловаться

На + 4 В.п.

О + 6 П.п.

заботиться

О + 6 П.п.

(без предлога) + 4 В.п.

болеть

5 Т.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

бояться

2 Р.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

бриться

5 Т.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

возражать

3 Д.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

выступать

в/на + 6 П.п.

В + 4 В.п.

выступать

Против + 2 Р.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

гордиться

5 Т.п.

3 Д.

голосовать

За + 4 В.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

готовиться

К + 3 Д.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

грозить

3 Д.

4 В.п.

давать

4 В.п.; 3 Д.п.

4 В.п., к + 3 Д.п.

давиться

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

дарить

3 Д. п.

К + 3 Д. п.

доверять

3 Д.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

дожидаться

2 Р.п.

4 В.п.

дотрагиваться

До + 2 Р.п.

К + 4 В. п.

желать

3 Д.п.

2 Р.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

4 В.п.

жениться

На + 6 П.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

заботиться

О + 6 П.п.

4 В.п.

завтракать

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

задавать

3 Д.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

закусывать

5 Т.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

заниматься

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

записываться

в/на + 4 В.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

заражаться

5 Т.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

здороваться

с + 5 Т.п.

3 Д.п.

злоупотреблять

5 Т.п.

Из +2 Р.п.

интересоваться

5 Т.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

казаться

3Д.п. + 5Т.п.

3 Д.п. + 4 В.п.

касаться

2 Р.п.

4 В.п.

оклеветать

4 В.п.

О + 6 П.п.

кормить

4 В.п.

К +3 Д.п.

кричать

2 Р.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

лишать

4 В.п.; 2 Р.

Из + 2 Р.; 4 В.п.

льстить

3 Д.п.

4 В.п.

любоваться

5 Т.П.

К + 3 Д.п.

махать

3 Д.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

мешать

3 Д.п.

4 В.п.

молчать

2 Р.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

мстить

3 Д. п.

Из +2 Р.п.

награждать

4 В.п.; 5 Т.п.

К + 3 Д.п.; 4 В.п.

надоедать

3 Д.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

нападать

4 В.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

наполняться

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

настаивать

На + 6 П.п.

Для +2 Р.п.

настраиваться

На +4 В.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

неметь

2 Р.п.

Из-за + 2 Р.п.

нравиться

1 И.п.; 3 Д.п.

4 В.п.

обижаться

На + 4 В.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

обмениваться

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

обслуживать

4 В.п.

К +3 Д.п.

объявлять

4 В.п.; 3 Д.п.

4 В.п.; к + 3 Д.п.

объяснять

4 В.п.; 3 Д.п.

4 В.п.; к + 3 Д.п.

овладевать

5 Т.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

отвечать

3 Д. п.

К + 3 Д.п.

отказывать

3 Д.п.

к + 3 Д.п.

отказываться

От + 2 Р.п.

4 В.

отрывать

4 В.п.; 5 Т.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

отчитываться

Перед + 5 Т.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

платить

3 Д.п.

Для + 2 Р.п.

поддаваться

3 Д.п.

С + 5 Т.п.

подсказывать

3 Д.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

подчёркивать

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

поздравить

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

превращаться

В+4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

предупреждать

4 В.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

преодолевать

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

просить – попросить

4 В.п.

Из + 2 Р.п.

пускать

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

ревновать

4 В.п.; к + 3 Д.п.

К + 3 Д.п.

следить

За +5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

смеяться

Над + 5 Т.п.

3 Д.п.

стрелять

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

торговать

5 Т.п.

4 В.п.

угнетать

4 В. п.

3 Д.п.

учить

4 В.п.

3 Д.п.

 

This typology of prepositional and case meanings in Persian, as well as its comparison with the Russian system, will be useful for young teachers who start working with Iranian students. In addition, this study can be relevant in the development of a specialized textbook for Iranians studying Russian as a foreign language, which will avoid certain mistakes and contribute to the rapid assimilation of Russian grammar and the formation of the necessary skills and abilities. This manual can be based on the differences between the Russian and Persian prepositional and case systems.

Conclusion

When comparing the prepositional-case systems in Russian and Persian, it becomes noticeable that many meanings that are expressed by the accusative case in Persian are represented in the genitive case in Russian, while various forms without prepositional structures (including in the genitive case), presented in Russian, requires a preposition in Persian. The ending in Russian also conveys a certain meaning, which implies possible variation in Russian as opposed to Persian. Due to the fact that in the Persian case, nouns do not have endings, the semantic load is taken on by prepositions that convey a certain shade of meaning in syntaxemes in a particular situation. The Iranian language is not such a complex prepositional-case system as in Russian, therefore it is difficult for students to differentiate the shades of meanings, due to the fact that Russian cases and the entire prepositional-case system perform huge syntactic functions.

Acknowledgement

The author of the article expresses his deep gratitude to Ahmadreza Rasouli and Mohammadhossein Rasouli from Islamic Azad University, Tehran Dental Branch for her help in translating the illustrative material into Persian and for the valuable comments made during the work on the article.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Байчорова А. О. К вопросу о методике изучения русского языка как неродного / Байчорова А. О. // Сборник статей: «Русский язык как неродной: Новое в теории и методике». – М., 2015.
  2. Всеволодова М.В. Теория функционально-коммуникативного синтаксиса: фрагмент прикладной (педагогической) модели языка / Всеволодова М.В. – М., 2000. С. 219.
  3. Добровольская В.В. Урок в системе обучения русскому языку как иностранному / Добровольская В.В. – М., 2015.
  4. Золотова Г.А. Синтаксический словарь: Репертуар элементарных единиц русского синтаксиса / Золотова Г.А. – М., 2011. С. 118.
  5. Онипенко Н.К. Теория коммуникативной грамматики и проблема системного описания русского синтаксиса / Онипенко Н.К. // Русский язык в научном освещении. № 2. – М., 2001. С. 108.
  6. Падучева Е.В. О семантике синтаксиса: Материалы к трансформационной грамматике русского языка / Падучева Е.В. – М., 2009. С. 18.
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  9. Хомяков С. А. Прогнозирование ошибок в употреблении падежей при обучении русскому языку как иностранному (на примере персидского языка) / Хомяков С. А., Хомякова Е. Ю. // СЛОВО. ГРАММАТИКА. РЕЧЬ. Выпуск XIX. Сборник научно-методических статей по вопросам преподавания русского языка как иностранного. Т. 19. МАКС Пресс. Москва, 2018. С. 171–185.
  10. Шахматов А.А. Учение о частях речи / Шахматов А.А. – М., 2006.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Baychorova A. O. K voprosu o metodike izucheniya russkogo yazyka kak nerodnogo [On the question of the methodology of learning Russian as a foreign language] / Baychorova A. O. // Collection of articles: "Russian as a foreign language: New in theory and methodology." M., 2015. [in Russian]
  2. Vsevolodova M.V. Teoriya funkcional’no-kommunikativnogo sintaksisa: fragment prikladnoj (pedagogicheskoj) modeli yazyka [The theory of functional-communicative syntax: a fragment of the applied (pedagogical) language model] / Vsevolodova M.V. – M., 2000. M. 219. [in Russian]
  3. Dobrovolskaya V.V. Urok v sisteme obucheniya russkomu yazyku kak inostrannomu [Lesson in the system of teaching Russian as a foreign language] / Dobrovolskaya V.V. – M., 2015. [in Russian]
  4. Zolotova G.A. Sintaksicheskiy slovar: Repertuar elementarnykh yedinits russkogo sintaksisa [Syntactic Dictionary: Repertoire of Elementary Units of Russian Syntax] / Zolotova G.A. – M., 2011. [in Russian]
  5. Onipenko N.K. Teoriya kommunikativnoy grammatiki i problema sistemnogo opisaniya russkogo sintaksisa [The theory of communicative grammar and the problem of systematic description of Russian syntax] / Onipenko N.K. // Russian language in scientific coverage. No. 2. – M., 2001. [in Russian]
  6. Paducheva Y.V. O semantike sintaksisa: Materialy k transformatsionnoy grammatike russkogo yazyka [On the semantics of syntax: Materials for the transformational grammar of the Russian language] / Paducheva Y.V. – M., 2009. [in Russian]
  7. Peshkovsky A.M. Russkij sintaksis v nauchnom osveshchenii [Russian syntax in scientific coverage] / Peshkovsky A.M. – M., 2001.
  8. Khomyakov S.A. Russkij yazyk kak inostrannyj: Tablicy. Kommunikativnye situacii. Leksika [Russian as a foreign language: Tables. Communicative situations. Vocabulary] / Khomyakov S.A. – M., 2015. [in Russian]
  9. Khomyakov S. A. Prognozirovanie oshibok v upotreblenii padezhej pri obuchenii russkomu yazyku kak inostrannomu (na primere persidskogo yazyka) [Prediction of errors in the use of cases in teaching Russian as a foreign language (on the example of the Persian language)] / Khomyakov S. A., Khomyakova E. Yu. // SLOVO. GRAMMAR. SPEECH. Issue XIX. Collection of scientific and methodological articles on teaching Russian as a foreign language. Vol. 19. MAX Press. Moscow, 2018. [in Russian]
  10. Shakhmatov A.A. Uchenie o chastyah rechi [The teaching of parts of speech] / Shakhmatov A.A. – M., 2006. [in Russian]

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