It is possible to enrich the vocabulary of a language both within a particular language (words acquire new lexical meanings and are created as entirely new words based on those that already exist in the language through various word-forming elements) and in the process of borrowing words from other languages. The process of borrowing foreign words is permanent. Extralinguistic factors (economic, political, social, and other transformations) contribute to the emergence of new borrowings in the language.
The main purpose of these words is to denote a new concept – something that did not exist beforehand (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.). Borrowings, therefore, perform a naming function. A large volume of borrowings from English to Russian in the late 20 and early 21st centuries is associated with certain political, economic and cultural conditions, "which determined the predisposition of Russian society to adopt a new and widespread use of previously existing but specific foreign language vocabulary" [7, P.12]. The situation with the languages of European countries is similar.
In addition to the naming function, foreign words can perform a manipulative function,  which is the psychological impact of a word on the receiver with the goal of achieving a perlocutionary effect. The factor of trends plays a significant role in this process, which is the active use of buzzwords (trend words) of foreign origin. According to V. I. Novikov, a buzzword (modnoe slovo) is «a word that often appears in oral speech, in the press, or occasionally can be heard on the radio or TV» [8, P. 3]. With modern mass media using foreign words more and more often, it is worth emphasizing the indisputable functional and stylistic potential of the English loanwords . Their main categories include «color, expressiveness, linguistic economy», which contribute to «the attractiveness of utterances and have a certain stylistic impact on the reader to achieve an adequate understanding in communication» [4, P.96]. Wordplay serves the purpose of creating a comic effect for emotional impact on the reader, which is successfully handled by the modern article headlines .
The popularity factor of loanwords also contributes to the identification of their demarcating function, which is examined in this article.
Demarcation as a Demonstration of "Self"
The process of borrowing foreign words from English to Russian has recently intensified to the point of presenting certain difficulties for linguists regarding the analysis of the words' functioning in the language as well as their place in the dictionary. "Ordinary people often simply have no understanding of it" [6, P. 37]. Most people get acquainted with popular foreign words through mass media and the Internet. Despite the peculiarity of mass media communication, which seeks to meet the needs of society and uses optimal language means for this purpose, the authors of the corresponding products claim that consumers often misinterpret the acquired information. M. A. Krongauz provides an example in the form of sports news stories and articles. The abundance of loanwords in a journalist’s speech is not the best language means of influencing the reader but rather the opposite – «journalists like to be smarter than the reader, and the abundance of unfamiliar words strengthens their superiority… they are not too concerned with the problem of understanding their own writing» [6, P.116]. Perhaps, it is a «professional style» to «use a word that is unfamiliar to most readers and seems to emphasize the «author’s dedication» [6, P. 117]. The obvious problem facing the reader is the problem of understanding the text, namely the text intended for the «mass reader». Continuing his thought, M. A. Krongauz notes that «using as many unfamiliar words as possible without any comments, which should indicate the author’s professionalism», has become «a common courtesy» [6, P. 119].
Demonstration of foreign language proficiency (English) while being not always appropriate in some cases, is currently a form of a trend, a popular novelty. Some members of society see the knowledge of the English language as a way to demonstrate a certain advantage over others. Regular and unmotivated replacement of words of the native language with synonymous foreign language borrowings manifests a kind of border or demarcation between the sender and the receiver. In this case, borrowings are intended to perform a demarcating function.
Demarcation as a Characteristic of Association with a Social Group
Language demarcation as a delineation is peculiar not only to individuals but also to members of certain social groups. This phenomenon is adopted by marketers and specialists in the field of advertising. A striking example of the phenomenon is the ad by the company "MegaFon" that was broadcast on Russian television in September 2019, the distinctive feature of which was the slogan "Sher'. Strim'. Stor'" (Share. Stream. Store), which can probably be interpreted as "share your videos and photos live, post them at any time". In fact, the slogan demonstrates a wordplay (a witticism), which the creators of the advertisement tried to demonstrate; however, its effectiveness is questionable. Among other techniques of wordplay such as parody, mimicry of a phenomenon, the opposition of objects and features, subversion of expectations, deliberate distortion is also distinguished [9, P. 8]. In the presented example, deliberate distortion is shown in the use of English words in Russian transliteration, which, according to A.V. Kravchenko, signifies the process of «hybridization of language», which negatively affects the value orientations of society [5, P. 342-343]. In order to influence the audience, advertising refers to the prestige of the recipient, to the choice of the most effective and comfortable strategy for life and to trend standards. [1, P.37]. It is popular and prestigious to use English words in one’s speech, but mainly among young people. The advertising text is a «special speech system adapted for optimal impact on the consumer» [10, P. 59]. The optimal impact is based on words borrowed from English but transliterated into Russian. These words are typical for youth slang and used mainly in virtual communication. The designated advertising slogan should therefore contribute to the actualization of the «linguocreative thinking «[1, P.42] of a potential recipient. This ad separates a certain recipient group. The target audience, in this case, would be certain social groups (students and schoolchildren). Foreign language words used in the slogan perform a demarcating function.
Under the pressure of current trends, the public consciousness undergoes certain changes, which are reflected in the language. The communication process turns into a trend-related behavior. Foreign language words are perceived by individual members of society as something prestigious as well as something of status that should be demonstrated (in this case, proficiency in a foreign language is perceived as a demonstration of "self"). The modern understanding of the terms "prestigious" and "status" are often equal in meaning. Status means the position of an individual in a certain structure (in society as a whole or in its separate subsystems, for example, in a certain social group). Some individuals may perceive the use of borrowings in the speech either as a sign of association with a certain group or, at the same time, as a sign of demarcation that delineates them as a representative of this group from any other.
The demarcating function of foreign words is, on the one hand, a form of markers (signs) of the individual's affiliation with a particular social subsystem while, on the other hand, the knowledge of foreign words can give a false display of an individual's professional superiority over others.
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