Following the cultural dynamics, the language is in a process of continuous development. The way in which the knowledge reflected in the language changes can be traced by studying the linguocultural transfer of knowledge. The study of various aspects of the transfer of knowledge is one of the relevant areas of scientific activity not only in the field of linguistics, but also within the framework of other scientific disciplines, such as economics, political science, psychology, etc.
Knowledge transfer can be viewed in broad and narrow senses, depending on the goal and objectives of the study [1, P. 17-19]. The transfer of knowledge within the framework of this work is understood as the natural process of change and adaptation of consciousness fragments of culture representatives, manifested in the content and structural change of the unit of knowledge transfer .
Within the framework of the scientific and everyday spheres of knowledge, the transfer of knowledge is implemented in different ways, it has various tracks of development. In addition, the transfer of knowledge can be carried out using a number of procedures, the nomenclature of which is determined by a combination of linguistic and extralinguistic factors. In this work, we consider the features of the implementation of procedures for generalization and specialization of intracultural transfer of knowledge as a diachronic process of transferring knowledge from generation to generation in the everyday sphere of knowledge in the Russian and Chinese linguistic worldviews.
A concept can be considered as a unit of knowledge transfer, which is possible due to the existence of parallels in the structure of the concept and consciousness , , [5, P. 15-37]. In this study, the concept of «man» is considered, since it is a basic concept that exists in different linguistic pictures of the world, in particular, it is widely represented in the Russian and Chinese linguistic pictures of the world . Consideration and comparison of the process of intracultural transfer of knowledge in these linguistic pictures of the world is of great interest for the research from the point of view of the ability to trace not only the process itself, but also the features of the influence of similar historical processes on the consciousness of carriers of a particular linguistic culture.
In order to trace the process of concept formation, and at the same time the transfer of knowledge in the national linguistic picture of the world, we have identified three periods of time in the Russian and Chinese linguistic pictures of the world: pre-revolutionary, post-revolutionary and modern. The basis for identifying such periods were significant historical events, definitely reflected in the minds of the carriers of the studied linguocultures .
While studying the concept as a unit of knowledge transfer in the Russian and Chinese linguistic pictures of the world, we identified a number of knowledge transfer procedures, where specialization and generalization are used as principal ones.
When searching for the procedures for the transfer of knowledge, we relied on the set of procedures described by M.V. Postovalova for intercultural transfer, according to which additional procedures were identified and described, in particular, generalization and specialization . These are multidirectional procedures, the implementation of which can be traced in the dynamics of the concept content, which manifests itself in a qualitative change in the concept nominative field. Specialization will be called concretization, clarification of the content of a unit of knowledge transfer, observed when the nuclear zone of the concept nominative field is narrowed, and generalization is the expansion of the nuclear zone .
These procedures were determined after analyzing changes in the content of the concept considered as a unit of knowledge. First of all, the field structure of the concept content was built at different stages of its formation . Within the framework of each considered synchronous state, the nuclear zone and zones of the near and far periphery of the concept "man" in the Russian and Chinese linguistic pictures of the world are represented by different sets of conceptual features.
The most important thing while considering the dynamics of the conceptual aspect is the change in the nuclear zone.
The analysis of the content of the concept "man" in the Russian linguistic picture of the world shows, therefore, that in the process of transfer of knowledge, the procedure of concretization was first carried out, and only then the generalization procedure: the content of the concept narrowed during the transition from the pre-revolutionary period to the post-revolutionary period and significantly expanded during the transition to the modern state.
Representatives of the concept "Man" were divided into groups according to their conceptual characterizing features. Moreover, one representative could be attributed to several groups.
Thus, the nuclear zone of the concept “man” in the Russian linguistic picture of the world at the pre-revolutionary stage is represented by six conceptual features: “Generalizing concepts” (face, people); "Profession and other occupations" (cook, teacher), "Groups and group relations" (chairman, people, member), "Status" (professor); "Gender" (woman), "Age" (children).
At the post-revolutionary stage, the nuclear zone narrowed down to a group of five conceptual features: "Profession and other occupations" (worker, labor, unemployment); "Groups and group relations" (working class, proletariat, saboteur); "Beliefs" (capitalism); "Generalizing concepts" (people); "Living space" (village).
At the present stage, the nuclear zone of the concept "man" in the Russian linguistic picture of the world has expanded with eight conceptual features: "Generalizing concepts" (people, person); "Personalities" (Sergey); "Profession and other occupations" (teacher); "Groups and group relations" (family, country); "Social role" (president); "Age" (children); "Sphere of activity" (economics); "Attributes" (money).
At the same time, the composition of the peripheral zone has systematically expanded over time.
In the Chinese linguistic picture of the world, the stability of the nuclear zone is observed, expressed by the only conceptual feature "Generalizing concepts" (人 — person). However, it should be noted that the peripheral zone with the transition to each next stage was systematically expanded, which indicates the implementation of the generalization procedure.
Thus, the content of the concept “person” at the pre-revolutionary stage is described by a group of eleven conceptual features “Family” (妇人 — married woman); "Profession and other occupations" (乡人 — peasant); "Interpersonal relationships" (相知 — good friend); "Social role" (客人 — guest); "Beliefs" (僧众 — Buddhist monk); "Groups and group relations" (国人 — compatriots); "Personalities" (张 — surname); "Generalizing concepts" (某人 — a certain person); "Subjective evaluative characteristics of a person" (好人 — a decent person); "Sex" (女人 — woman); "Age" (老大爷 — grandfather).
The increase in the number of conceptual signs at the post-revolutionary stage to thirteen indicates the implementation of the generalization procedure: “Family” (姊弟 — brother); "Profession and other occupations" (编辑 人 — editor); "Interpersonal relations" (等 人 — companions); "Social role" (代表 — representative, delegate); "Beliefs" (无产阶级 革命家 — proletarian revolutionary); "Groups and group relations" (社会 — society); “Status” (贫 人 – indigent, poor); “Personalities” (毛 — surname), “Generalizing concepts” (人类 — humanity); "Subjective evaluative characteristics of a person" (英勇 — valiant, heroic); "Sex" (妇女 — woman); "Age" (年幼 – junior, young); "Physical condition" (健全 — healthy, strong).
Further expansion of the content of the concept to 19 conceptual signs indicates the continuation of the generalization procedure implementation: "Family" (亲属 — spouses); "Profession and other occupations" (记者 — journalist); "Interpersonal relations" (敌人 — enemy, adversary); "Social role" (原告 — plaintiff); "Beliefs" (儒家 学说 — Confucianism); "Groups and group relations" (村民 委员会 — village committee); "Status" (主人翁 — owner); "Personalities" (孔子 — Confucius); "Generalizing concepts" (人称 — face); "Subjective evaluative characteristics of a person" (嘴尖 — stinging); "Sex" (妇女 — woman); "Age" (青年人 — youth); “Physical condition (盲人 — blind); "Parts of the body" (脑袋 — head); "Scope of activity" (交通 运输 — transportation); "Activity" (学习 — to learn); "Living space" (村 — village); "Attributes" (衣食 — clothing and food); "Abstract concepts" (大德 — virtue, nobility).
The analysis of the data obtained also showed that the implementation of specialization / generalization procedures is possible through the realization of the following modifications: reduction of meaning and semantic augmentation . At the same time, a reduction in meaning is observed in the process of implementing the specialization procedure, which demonstrates a decrease in conceptual features, and semantic augmentation is a generalization procedure, manifested by an increase of the number of conceptual features in the process of development and formation of a concept.
Considering the transfer of knowledge in the Russian and Chinese linguistic pictures of the world, we can note a more obvious dynamics of the content of the concept in the Russian linguistic picture of the world, since it is reflected in the nuclear zone of the concept field structure. Fluctuations in the number of conceptual features are insignificant. In the Chinese linguistic picture of the worldwe do not see the dynamics in the nuclear zone of the field structure of the concept of a person, but there is a rapid increase in the number of conceptual features in the peripheral zone.
The greater dynamism of the nuclear zone of the concept of "man" in the substantive aspect in the Russian linguistic picture of the world in comparison with the Chinese one testifies, firstly, of the arbitrary influence of the historical events on the consciousness of linguistic culture carriers, and secondly, of the fact that the same procedures can be implemented with various degrees of intensity.
Thus, it can be possible to talk about the implementation of generalization and specialization procedures of intracultural transfer of knowledge according to the type of transfer in the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world. The order of implementation of these procedures is different, which may be due to the number of peculiarities in the mentality of the Russian and Chinese linguistic culture bearers, as well as extralinguistic factors, such as historically established relations with other nations.
In the future, the researches on the material of other languages are planned, in order to determine the universality of generalization and specialization procedures for the transfer of knowledge according to the type of transfer. In addition, it is necessary to clarify the features of the implementation of these procedures for intercultural transfer of knowledge.
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