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Isakova A.A. TRADEMARK VARIETY OF RUSSIAN LINGUISTIC SPACE / A.A. Isakova // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 13—17. — URL: (дата обращения: 26.10.2021. ).
Isakova A.A. TRADEMARK VARIETY OF RUSSIAN LINGUISTIC SPACE / A.A. Isakova // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 4 (24). — С. 13—17.


Исакова А.А.1
1 , Тюменский индустриальный университет, Тюмень, Россия
Статья посвящена анализу товарных марок и брендов, их функционированию и адаптации в русском языковом пространстве. Товарные марки относятся к периферийной зоне ономастического пространства и объединены в общий класс прагмонимов (имена собственные товаров) или прагмотонимов. Значительную роль в создании и функционировании торарных марок играют экстралингвистические (исторические, социально-экономические, культурные) факторы. Эти факторы помогают глубже понять отдельные номинативные процессы в периферийных ономастических пространствах. Интеграция функционально мощных языков привела к взаимодействию различных прагмонимических зон русского и иностранного языков в глобальном коммуникативном пространстве. Класс товарных знаков динамичен, вариативен и трудно систематизируется.
Ключевые слова: товарная марка, заимствование, прагмоним, лингво-культурологический подход, экстралингвистические факторы.
Страницы: 13 - 17

Isakova A.A.1
1 , Tyumen Industrial University, Tyumen, Russia
The article is devoted to the analysis of trademarks and brands, their functioning and adaptation in the Russian language space. Trademarks belong to the peripheral zone of the onomastic space and they are united into a general class of pragmonyms (proper names of goods) or pragmotonyms. Extralinguistic (historical, socio-economic, cultural) factors play a significant role in the creation and functioning of torarian brands. These factors help to understand individual nominative processes better in peripheral onomastic spaces. The integration of functionally powerful languages has led to the interaction of various pragmonym zones of Russian and foreign languages in the global communication space. The class of trademarks is dynamic, variable and difficult to organize.
Keywords: trademark, borrowing, pragmonym, linguistic and cultural approach, extralinguistic factors.
Pages: 13 - 17
Почта авторов / Author Email: isakovaaa[at]


The relevance of the study is determined by the urgent need to analyze the processes of appearance and structural, semantic characteristics of industrial proper names, regularities of formation and the development of language units of onomastic peripheral zone. Research of categories of national onomastic space of individual territories is complete and comprehensive. As a rule, this statement is based on a careful study of toponymic subspace (Madieva, Labunets, etc.), anthroponymic (Alishina, Bagirov and others). This situation isn't absolutely fair concerning such proper names as ergonyms (organization names), poetonyms (poetic names), phytonyms (plant names), pragmonyms (trademark names)) which belong to a peripheral zone of onomastics. Therefore, it is seldom possible to find their corresponding description in the scientific literature; only antroponyms (people names), toponyms (geographical names) entered the onomastic database [1]. Many of them are very complicated inventory (only in a field operation), since they are not recorded in the written sources. It is very difficult to inventory many of them (only in the conditions of field work) since they aren't recorded in written sources. For example: anemonymas – names of winds, hrononymas – names of intervals of time, dromonyms – names of various means of communication, etc.

Nevertheless, the analysis of semantic and word-formation structure of these proper name categories allows to track certain principles of the peripheral nominative zone and dynamics of appellative transition into the onym category. There is an opinion that the peripheral onomastic categories are weak: they have practically no structure and system [2], they are discrete, and they aren't interested by a special scientific research. But I think that there are many linguistic zones among all proper names. By the way, only anthroponyms (names of people) and toponyms (geographical names) have been researched very well.  

Semantic-pragmatic potential of proper names

The research of semantic-pragmatic potential of proper names allows to determine the range of speech situations in the remote scale: proximity / absence of proximity / friendliness / hostility / rejection / coldness / familiarity / officiality/informality / approval / disapproval in which these or those forms of proper names are used. In this connection there is an opportunity to highlight the personal sphere of the human, the criteria for its determination and inclusion / exclusion in this area [3]. The selection criteria are applicable to communicative situations with a pragmatic use of proper names and in society:

1)  Inclusion of pragmonyms into the personal speaking sphere

— using emotional and expressive forms of proper names: RAV 4 – Rafik; PEUGEOT – Dude (Pizhon) and others;

— using informal naming: Ford-Focus – Vasilisa (color machine), Hyundai – a yaposhka (Jap) (a manufacturer of the origin country). The personal sphere of the person is defined by him and different forms of a name can be realized as signs which define the social status, behavior, the attitude of the person towards himself.

 2) pragmonim exception to the personal sphere: machine, car — instead of the name. The research of proper names in the functional-pragmatic aspect reveals an onym group, which can be used in speech practice, creating the special world of a slang. These names testify to reference fullness of a name because Onym-slangs are distinguished by big figurativeness, they connote according to the axiological principle. For example: Komatsu – Japanese etc.

The existence of such onyms is a special speech register which indicates the rational nominative category of a specific social group. Slang onyms can be universal, functional and free of age and social status. Their research suggests the knowledge of informal nominative acts and demonstrates results of human creativity through the prism of cognitive activity. An important phenomenon of the any country cultural life are mass media and social institutions [4], which are situated and borrowed from other languages in the Russian nominative system. Anthropocentrism of any language proper names is due to the observer's position because any subject, object, process derive their existence only in the valuation. Expansion of human activity spheres "to humanize the world" have really an impact on expanding the onomastic boundaries.

Pragmonimic space

The emergence of new goods and services, extension of their list forced to develop new models of the nomination in a situation of secondary signification.  Now the linguistic side of trademarks is completely ignored due to the limited sphere of their functioning and the specificity of their semantics.

But we think that the pragmonimic sphere is extensive. The selection and the detailed characteristics of separate classes still wait for the researchers. As a rule, scientists follow the plan principles of recommendation in the nomination of pragmonimic object:

• pragmonims have to be motivated in order to reflect a kind of activity, signs and functions of the relevant institutions.

• pragmonyms must perform advertising function to appeal to the human consciousness, they must draw customer attention and initiate interest in the advertized products, goods (regardless of their material or spiritual value);

• the name should be easy to remember and reproduce in speech.

Pragmonyms often reflect the pragmatic, ideological and aesthetic presentation of both all society and the individual. Individualizing tendencies manifested in the process of nomination in connection with the expansion of private enterprises and private property. We consist all verbal trademarks (VT) are pragmonyms because they indicate serial, brand-name goods, products, plant varieties, brands machines, etc. Some researchers prefer to use the term “pragmatonym” which also meets the criteria for the formation of onomastic terms. And it can be used as a synonym for pragmonyms and VT. Verbal trademarks (VT) as a pragmonimic class are extreme zone of periphery onomastic space. They occupy an intermediate position between a proper noun and a common noun.  It should be said that very popular brand can become a common noun in future. The closest connection of trademarks with subject signs of goods is the main feature which does not allow to class them as a proper noun: every verbal trademark seeks to become a common noun. For example: cashmere, zhiguli, cola, shoe polish, etc. It is the main reason of their fragile position between a proper noun and a common noun. Besides, the reason of the ambiguous relation to verbal trademarks is the understanding that names of the same series, group consist of many objects, for example:

• brand cars (Moskvich, Lada, Volga, Mercedes-Benz, Skoda, Chevrolet, Hyundai,  Honda, Volkswagen, Ford, Mercedes)

• variety of confectionery and bakery products (candy Fresh, Sultan pasta);

• names of home appliances (TV Horizon, Biryusa refrigerator, Snow-storm vacuum cleaner);

• names of economic products (soap Strawberry, Dove, powder Lotus, Tide, Pearls toothpaste);

• brands of wineproducing products (Kazakhstan brandy, Azhar wine, Parliament vodka Derbes beer);

• varieties of fruit (apples – Gold, Yellow Chaldon, Crimson, Qandil Sinop, Sinap Almaty, pear – Talgark, grapes – Limonka, Sabot Pearls, Queen Dona, Karakoz, Isabella, Terbash)

• grades of trees, flowers (lilacs — William Robinzon, Kazimir Perye, Snowball, roses — Youth, Slava of the world, Lady Hellington, Lisa Chaykina, Love, Bride), etc.

Never the les verbal trademarks are the object of onomastic studying. .They have all the features of a proper noun (assigned to a certain product, the ability to be differentiated among several others like them, to identify the designated object, etc.). Verbal trademarks are very intricately connected with trade sings or brands. Trademarks are used to identify the manufacturer and the differences of competing products. Trademarks can be represented by a word (Rolls-Royce – names of company founder Charly Rolls and Henry Royce, Xerox – words "dry" and "to write"), by a symbol, number, a contour or a combination of signs and words (Coca-Cola). Therefore, it is necessary to study both verbal trademarks and commercial brand signs.

Some pragmonym classes are the least studied or not studied at all, suh as hrematonyms, poreyonyms, faleronyms, etc. Hrematonyms include proper names of unique artifacts: guns Tsar Cannon, Unicorn, Wolf, bells Golodar, Red, Baron, diamonds South Star, Monomakh's Cap, cup Lebed. In England big bells have the proper name since the ancient time. It is known that seven the seven most famous bells are called in the country: Great Paul — St. Paul's Cathedral bell in London, Great Peter — Bell of the cathedral of York, Great George — Liverpool Cathedral bell, Big Ben — Houses of Parliament at London, Little John — on Exchange Nottingham, Great George – a bell of Bristol University and the bell Great Tom of Oxford – the bell in the gate tower of Christ Church college, Oxford.

Today the number of trademarks is estimated in millions around the world.  The most common and historically steady trademarks get into all areas of communication, they are recorded in dictionaries. Moreover, they affect development of lexical system of language. Linguistics is always closely connected with all the scientific and technical areas; linguistic analysis enables any process to its correct understanding and presentation [9]. The great value is attached to problems of commodity brand creation abroad. Marketing specialists, entrepreneurs, advertising experts perfectly understand that the unsuccessful name can lead to a market failure and the successful name brings millions (K. Buhler [5], J. Praninskas [6] and others). That’s why S. Megentesov emphasizes the importance of manipulative influence on the person mentality [7].

In general, it should be noted that many foreign trademarks research and manuals belong to publications in the field of economy.  It is explained by the fact that studying of verbal trademarks has mainly a pragmatical focus abroad. Special attention is paid to the legal aspects of trademark functioning, advertizing and successful promotion in the market. In this regard trademarks are studied by the social, psychological, legal points of view. Linguistic research has appeared only since the end of the last century. The spontaneous development of the sphere of consumer goods structures pragmonimic area. Now it is possible to allocate the subspaces relating to various aspects of consumption: equipment (transport, medical, household etc.), grocery goods, light industry etc. Moreover, each of these subspaces can also be further gradation. Zh. Koshpanova notes and analyzes only names of product goods in her thesis of pragmonyms but she didn't risk designating categories and classes in grocery pragmonyms having limited only 179 categories among the products [8]. We suppose that the sphere of grocery pragmonyms is extensive and interesting. Each class of names has the specifics and some transonymizatsion models, For example, we can find  some classes among food and beverage such as alkonyma (alcho – lat. alcohol + onyma — a name) – names of alcoholic beverages, tsibusonim (cibus – lat. food, food + onyma — a name.  potionima (potio – lat. drink + onyma — a name) for designation of soft drinks etc. In my opinion the pragmonim subspaces can develop both vertically and horizontally: a) between onym lexicon and appellatives, b) between various onomastic subspaces. It should be noted the following features:

1) pragmonyms can "mark" series, types of homogenous and therefore they can treat both a separate element of a row and all series in general.

2) pragmonyms are caused by extra-linguistic factors.

Today the consumer society is in its heyday. But it is heavy physical labor even in the service sector. The life quality improving of different industrial products are firmly in the everyday life of our society. It is difficult to find a researcher who would not have addressed the issue of preserving onym vocabulary in human memory. Pragmonyms belong to the periphery of a common onomastic space. The study of their subspace is no less important.

Pragmonimic vocabulary is characterized by a number of features which allow distinguishing it in a separate subspace. Each class of pragmonyms has selectivity motivating principles. For example, transport pragmonyms often focus on certain character traits which have a positive charge in an advertising slogan, in medical pragmonyms focus on a purpose instrument, etc. The value of pragmonims is limited to nominative, nominative function and proper names. This point of view is supported by Russian linguists N. Arutyunova, A.Isakova, G. Madieva, A. Reformatsky, A. Ufimtseva and others. Analyzing semiotics classification of signs, we can see both symbols, and indexes, and iconic signs in pragmonyms. Symbols are signs in which communication between meant and meaning is established arbitrarily. For example, emblems of all cars (people distinguish the car emblem even without seeing the name): an  emblem of the car Proton – a symbol of the sun (obligatory attribute of heraldry of Southeast Asia) against the background of a wreath from stars, an emblem of the car Citroën – the turned letters "V" which schematically represent gears. the emblem of the truck Tatra – the word "Tatra" is enclosed in a circle (a perfection symbol), an emblem of the truck Sable – an animal, an emblem of the car Skoda – the winged arrow expressing ideals of the company, an emblem of the car Acura is used the stylization of a letter "A" reminding metal nippers, Daewoo emblem – the stylized sea shell, many household goods have also emblems (for example, LG emblem – a letter L in a circle) [9], etc. Pragmonyms-symbols become elements of the virtual reality of "a world picture" in addition to the transmission of mythological or sacral, or socially meaningful sense. Moreover, it also consists of knowledge about itself. So the pragmonim-symbol is an element of the communicative space of culture in general.

Usually a symbol is researched as a sign because the symbol and symbolical meanings are considered a result of abstraction of mythological, figurative or language sign systems. Some years ago, the symbol was only considered an element of the semiotics system presented by a myth, ritual, art, language. In my opinion the symbol of sign systems is a "secondary" symbol. Iconic signs are not absolutely unusual in the pragmonimic space. These are sound graphic words. Such pragmonyms have got nonrandom, motivated link between their phonemic structure and the fact that Charles Peirce called simple properties of a signified word. Involuntary connection of pragmonimic phonemes with a sound sign of the subject is called an onomatopoeia [10]. The question of motivating words is difficult in onomastics, especially in pragmonimic peripheral subspace. The word-formation structure is necessary to be analyzed. The correct motivating word is often unknown. Therefore, we consider that the pragmonim motivation is a broader concept than the expression of a particular motivational sign. The problem of determination of a motivation sign is urgent also in the pragmonimic space. Its regular opposition is formed by vectors "a name → a subject" and "a name → a person". For example: TV Horizon, a cell phone Motorola and a washing machine Bosch, a car Renault.  The division of pragmonimic material is based on nature of direct or indirect motivation. The nominative creator is limited in his nominative activity only by the most general requirements. The criteria of nominative selecting become the personal language taste of the creator on the one hand and the social idea of the adequate name on the other. As a rule, the second, public criterion dominates. The search of new model (the nomination – the address) logically correlated with the rejection of traditional nomination (geographical name). Pragmonyms have to be emotionally saturated. The presence of the emotive component reduces the distance between the nominator and the addressee. It leads to variation of the traditional approach to the nomination.

The naming is a complex structure. A potential customer has got the most extensive certain associative reactions seeing and listening a particular name. The naming creator needs to foresee this associative reaction at best. So there is special mental space (psychospace) of a proper name representing the whole structured in the form of various subspaces. Pragmonym (trademarks, brands) has features of proper names (onym) and appellatives. However, these aspects are not the main way in  the systemic determining of peripheral proper names (onyms). Pragmonyms belong to a class of proper names which consists of the borrowed and artificially created names of goods and services. The term "borrowing" means "the process of integrating of foreign language lexical items from one language system to another”; and the linguistic units move from one language to another as a result of the process. E. Volodarskaya supposes that the borrowing is "universal linguistic phenomenon from another language due to the extra-linguistic contacts between them on the different levels and forms" [11]. The process of integration of foreign-language lexical units tends to increase. It leads to the necessity of studying the assimilation of foreign words with the laws of development of the borrowing position of the language system in general. The majority of Russian pragmonyms are created by borrowing. Moreover, the trade name has extensive associative communications in the borrowing language. It gives us to research proper names in the ethno-psycho-linguistic aspect. The formation of new pragmonim bases is done by borrowing foreign words in our days. Is is very urgent in connection with the international nature of trade and expansion of foreign economic relations now. For example, Xerox copiers, Panasonic TV sets, Indesit washing machines, Samsung phones, electro-cardiograph Kardiovit, automobiles Volvo, Toyota, etc. The term indicated by the incorporation of foreign-language lexical items from one language system to another in the linguistic literature The term "borrowing" means process of foreign lexical units moving from one language system into another. As a result, the language units move from one language to another during this process I think that borrowing is a process of inclusion of foreign lexical units in the system of another language. There are two approaches to consider borrowing problems. Traditionally borrowing is understood as a complex, multifaceted process of enrichment of the native vocabulary which gives us the active creative beginning of foreign-language development. We understand the native vocabulary as the process at the moment before borrowing. The borrowing process is updated, and it carried out the function of intra-structural character. It has the active dictionary structure of any language and leads to the necessity of trademarks borrowing studying according to the laws of development of the borrowing language system in general. The intensification of business, academic, commercial and cultural contacts develops between Russia and foreign partners. Every year the goods turnover between them increases. It generates intensity of communicative contacts. Thus, our research represents a significant degree elaboration of linguistic and cultural approach to the pragmonims studying. Linguistic -cultural approach to the description of pragmonimic problems gives us a systematic and parity consideration of "culture-language" dialogue which forms the structure of the pragmonymic field. The dominant cultural thinking becomes knowledge and understanding. Such dominant leads to a research of interaction of language, culture and identity. The interrelation of language and culture gives the fact that language "sprouts" in culture and expresses an important part of its symbolic system. Therefore, the triad "language-culture-personality (nation)" is a central linguistic triad. The main tendency of modern linguistics is the transition from "immanent", structural linguistics into anthropological linguistics. The language phenomena of cultural, spiritual, and practical human activity is the most relevant today. The integrity of the semiotics model analysis of linguistic-cultural pragmonimic objects is achieved by the connecting of different research parts into common essence. This concept is intended to show the advantages of systemic-functional approach in comparison with others. Trademarks’ named are linguistic-cultural objects. The system method of trademarks studying means the  semantics, syntagmatic, syntactic and pragmatic unity which makes a complete impression about trademark units in connection with actually language and extra language reflections. For example: Nissan Micro car advertising. Paris!!! Inspiration is everywhere…  Paris inspiration everywhere … This advertising text is interconnected:

1) the orientation of the vehicle (for businesswomen), 

2) focus on youth, romance (Paris, inspiration)

3) the proper name Micro (small).

Therefore, the main values of life focus the consumer on  the deployed metaphor of this car.

So pragmonyms (trademark proper names) function in the peculiar cultural, historical and language indexes. They reflect the most prestigious formation of the vocabulary concept and create favorable conditions for a comprehensive study of consciousness, culture and language.

Moreover, any foreign pragmonyms become a part of the native culture. Indeed, more and more foreign trademarks appear in Russia in connection with the development of production and expansion of cross-cultural space because new Russian-foreign companies are created in Russia. If a few years ago many people couldn't even read the trademark Daewoo and now some people try even to decline this word on cases. Many new mechanisms of Russian-foreign production began to be created for oil and gas complex, medicine and the electronic industry.

So, the coexistence of functionally strong languages in uniform communicative space has led to interaction of different onomastic spaces and borrowing from one national system (English, Japanese, German, Korean, Chinese or Russian) to another. The extra-linguistic (historical, social and economic, cultural) factors play the significant role in creating and functioning of the pragmonimic categories. These factors help to understand particular nominative processes in separate subspaces more deeply. The integration of functionally powerful languages has led to interaction of different Russian and foreign language pragmonymic zones in global communicative space. This fact is a result of adapting onyms and borrowing proper names from one national system (English, Japanese, German, Korean, Chinese, or Russian) to another. Modern active social processes have caused powerful penetration of pragmonyms into all spheres of life. Pragmonim possesses the certain legal status legislatively. There is a certain confusion in the use of various forms of trademarks (Russian and English versions).

Therefore, the facts of linguistic reality are new concepts, phenomena and realities, things of the world arising in process of science and technical progress. They demand a special kind of naming — creating a new category of nomination. In this regard, pragmonyms cover virtually all areas of scientific and technological production; and many linguists, marketing specialists are interesting of them.


Modern active social processes have caused powerful trademarks penetration into all spheres of life. The linguistic pragmonim status is not accurately defined because it’s a periphery class in proper name space (onomastics). Russian pragmonyms (trademark space) are the least researched field of onomastics. The main reason of it is the influence of extra-linguistic factors and moreover the trademark class is dynamic, variable and difficult systematize.

Thus, pragmonyms function in a specific historical, cultural and language indexes. They reflect the most optimal lexical principles, and they create suitable conditions for a uniform complex research of consciousness, culture and language. Therefore, we can draw the following conclusions and the statistical analysis. Modern Russian onomastic and pragmonymic research are based on the statistical analysis. They have a chronological, subject imbalance and they are characterized by the possibilities and prospects of knowledge development of onomastics.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Hudson R. Some Basic Assumptions about Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Knowledge / R. Hudson. – Quaderni di semantica, 1988. Vol.VI. N.2. – P.284-287.
  2. Исакова А.А. Communication strategies of the Tyumen region space / A. A. Исакова. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. 2016. № 5-2 (47). – С. 39-41.
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  6. Megentesov S. A. Lingvisticheskie aspekty psihicheskogo vozdejstvija i priemov manipuljacii / S. A. Megentesov. – Krasnodar, 2006. – 186 p. [in Russian]
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  10. Пирс Ч. С. Что такое знак? / Ч. С. Пирс // Вестник Томского гос. ун-та. Сер. Философия. Социология. Политология, 2009. № 3 (7). – С. 88–95.
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Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Hudson R. Some Basic Assumptions about Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Knowledge / R. Hudson. – Quaderni di semantica, 1988. Vol.VI. N.2. – P.284-287.
  2. Isakova A. A. Communication strategies of the Tyumen region space / A. A. Isakova. – Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel’skij zhurnal. 2016. № 5-2 (47). – P. 39-41. [in Russian]
  3. Jeko U. Otsutstvujushhaja struktura. Vvedenie v semiologiju [Missing structure. Introduction to semiology] / U. Jeko. – SPb.: Simpozium. 2004. – 544 p. [in Russian]
  4. Bjuler K. Teorija jazyka. Reprezentativnaja funkcija jazyka [Language theory. Representative function of language] / K. Bjuler. – M.: Progress, 1993. – 502p. [in Russian]
  5. Praninskas J. Trade name creation / J. Praninskas. – Trade name creation. Processes and patterns. The Hague-Paris, Monton and Co…1968.
  6. Megentesov S. A. Lingvisticheskie aspekty psihicheskogo vozdejstvija i priemov manipuljacii / S. A. Megentesov. – Krasnodar, 2006. – 186 p. [in Russian]
  7. Arutjunova N. D. Tipy jazykovyh znachenij (Ocenka. Sobytie. Fakt) [Types of language values ​​(Assessment. Event. Fact)] / N. D. Arutjunova. – M.: Nauka, 1988. – 338 p. [in Russian]
  8. Koshpanova Zh. B. Pragmonimicheskoe prostranstvo: struktura i semantika [Pragmonimic space: structure and semantics]. dis. … of PhD in Philology / Zh. B. Koshpanova. – Almaty, 2006. – P. 21. [in Russian]
  9. Isakova A. A. Transport nominations in cross-cultural communication training / A. A. Isakova. – IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018. Volume 483. – Article Number 1.
  10. Pirs Ch. S. Chto takoe znak? [ What is a sign?] / Ch. S. Pirs // Vestnik Tomskogo gos. un-ta. Ser. Filosofija. Sociologija. Politologija, 2009. № 3 (7). – P. 88–95.
  11. Volodarskaja Je. F. Zaimstvovanie kak universal’noe lingvisticheskoe javlenie [Borrowing as a universal linguistic phenomenon] / Je. F. Volodarskaja // Voprosy filologii, 2001. №1. – P. 11-27. [in Russian]

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