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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.18

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Pllana G. OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE / G. Pllana, S. Pllana, A. Breznica-Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 181—184. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%b7%d0%be%d1%80-%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%b7%d0%b2%d0%b8%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%8f-%d1%8f%d0%b7%d1%8b%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%be%d0%b9-%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%bc%d0%b8%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%bb%d0%be%d0%b3%d0%b8/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.18
Pllana G. OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE / G. Pllana, S. Pllana, A. Breznica-Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 181—184. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.18

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Плана Г.1, Плана С.2, Брезница-Плана А.3
1, 2 , Приштинский университет «Хасан Приштина», Приштина, Республика Косово; 3 , Магистр английского языка, преподаватель техникума "Lutfi Musiqi", Вучитрн, Республика Косово
ОБЗОР РАЗВИТИЯ ЯЗЫКОВОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ И ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ В АЛБАНСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Аннотация
В течение длительного времени ученые изучали терминологию как лингвистическое поле как в контексте общей проблематики албанского языка, так и в отношении проблематики, которую охватывает сама терминология. Албанская техническая терминология относится к международным терминологическим системам, а также к новым поступлениям, обусловленным открытием Албании и Косово и их пути к интеграции в международные организации, такие как НАТО, ЕС и т. д. Она также связана с глобализацией и мощным воздействием английского языка. История развития мотивирует текущее состояние лингвистической и технической терминологии в тесной связи с общей лексикой албанского языка, с единицами, которые специализируются как стандартизированные термины в различных областях технико-технологических знаний. Эта статья посвящена обзору истоков и разработок албанской лингвистической терминологии и технической терминологии в албанском языке.
Ключевые слова: терминология, лингвистическая терминология, техническая терминология, албанский ареал, терминологические словари.
Страницы: 181 - 184

Pllana G.1, Pllana S.2, Breznica-Pllana A.3
1, 2 , University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; 3 , Master of English Language, Lecturer at Technical School "Lutfi Musiqi", Vushtrri, Republic of Kosovo
OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE
Abstract
For a long time, terminology as a linguistic field has been the subject of research by scholars, both in the context of the general problematic of the Albanian language and in regards to the problematic that the terminology itself encompasses. Albanian technical terminology is related to international terminological systems, as well as new arrivals conditioned by the opening of Albania and Kosovo and their path to integration into international organizations, such as NATO, EU, etc. It is also related to globalization and the powerful impact of English. The history of development motivates the current state of linguistic and technical terminology in close connection with the general lexicon of the Albanian language, with units that are specialized as standardized terms in various fields of technical-technological knowledge. This paper deals with an overview of the beginnings and developments of Albanian linguistic terminology and technical terminology in the Albanian language.
Keywords: terminology, linguistic terminology, technical terminology, Albanian areal, terminological dictionaries.
Pages: 181 - 184
Почта авторов / Author Email: gani.pllana[at]uni-pr.edu, ,

Interest in terminology throughout the world

At the beginning of the 19th century, scientists began to suggest the need to set rules for the formation of terms for each discipline and relevant field. During this period, the term "terminology" began to be used. This name was used for the first time by German scholar Christian Gottfried Schutz (1747-1832) as an alternative to "nomenclature" [9, P. 83]. Until the 19th century, scientists were the first to be interested in terminology, but in the 20th century, we can say that technicians and engineers were increasingly involved in issues related to terminology. The development of technology required not only the naming of new concepts, but also the agreement on the models to be built and the criteria on how they would be used. Therefore, the work with terminology began to be organized according to the specialties of the respective fields. From this, the need arose to create a stable system.  

The first steps of terminological study were taken in 1906 by the International Electrotechnical Commission. Compiling the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary took about 30 years and was completed in 1938. This work was considered as an initiative for the creation of modern terminology and was supported by several countries, such as Germany, Austria, the Soviet Union, etc. In these conditions, Austrian scholar Eugen Wüster (1898-1977) [3, P. 163] was distinguished in the field of energy and was hailed as the initiator of modern terminology and a representative of the Vienna school [5, P. 16]. In the same period, Dmitrij S. Lotte (1889-1950) and Ernest K. Dresen (1892-1937), a Latvian/Russian-Soviet linguist and expert on scientific and technical terminology, represented the Soviet school of terminology. The following international authors have also made extraordinary contributions to terminology: H. Felber and K. Galinski (Austria), H. Piht (Denmark). A very interesting event for global terminology took place when Lotte published an article in 1931 entitled “Pressing Problems in the Field of Scientific and Technical Terminology”. This resulted in “General Theory of Terminology”, a separate work from Wüster, who published his doctoral dissertation, Linguistic Standardization in Technics", in 1931.

In general, the main principles of modern terminology can be found in Wüster's dissertation [9, P. 83]. Wüster developed terminology theories based on his terminological experience and summarized them in the work, “The Machine Tool”.

The British Standards Institution was founded in 1901, and it was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1929 [1].

The beginnings of Albanian lexicography

Albanian lexicography, as it is known, has its beginnings with Frang Bardhi's Latin-Albanian Dictionary (Dictionarium latino-epiroticum, 1635). It contains about 2,500 Albanian words and about 5,000 Latin words [Thomai, P.11]. Frang Bardhi opened the door for the long list of later authors of dictionaries. The number of dictionaries published in the Albanian language so far is over 580. In the second half of the twentieth century, a large influx of dictionaries was made by Albanian lexicographers on both a professional and scientific level. Dictionaries of different types have been compiled, such as philological and encyclopedic, explanatory, bilingual and multilingual, terminological, synonymous, phraseological, antonymous [Miqo Samara], historical and etymological, onomastics, spelling, electronics, etc. [17, P. 13]. Qualitative dictionaries of Albanian with foreign languages have been compiled, such as Russian, Serbo-Croatian, French, Italian, English, German, Turkish, Arabic, Greek, and many other languages of the peoples of Europe. [19, P. 108-117]. Thus, Albanian has been confronted with many rich languages and with lexicography for centuries. Today, The Institute of Linguistics and Literature in Tirana (founded in 1955), contains over 4 (four) million files for words and expressions from the Renaissance onwards, collected by hundreds of collaborators. These are the source for compiling explanatory and general dictionaries.

Technical texts take special value in the development of technical terminology. Bindon's Dictionary occupies a special place [2].

The biggest influence on technology development in Albania from 1945-1990 was the supply of vehicles and technical tools, mainly from the former Soviet Union, and the preparation of relevant specialists in France, some eastern states, and Soviet technical schools. The Russian term-forming models also served to create terminological terms that took root in many terminological dictionaries. There are up to 33 such terminological series dictionaries.

Albanian lexicology has had its limitations, some of the consequences of which are still felt today. Until 1990, due to the political and social circumstances of the time, Albanian lexicology could not develop and keep pace with contemporary lexicological studies. Therefore, it has failed to be compacted and coordinated at the overall Albanian national level. Lexicological studies in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and the Preshevo Valley have brought differences in the volume of the object of study, in the applied scientific methodology, and in scientific input. [18, P. 129]

In Kosovo, the Albanological Institute was established on June 1, 1953, but it did not function from 1955-1967 due to the socio-political circumstances in the former Yugoslavia. From 1994, the workers of the Albanological Institute, a total of 52 of them, left the Institute building. This was also due to the socio-political circumstances in the former Yugoslavia. They settled in private homes and stayed there until 1998, when work was allowed on the Institute building, where they are to this day.

The Institute started to function in 1967 and is still functioning today. Many professional and scientific works in the field of linguistics, history, and folklore were compiled by the employees of the Albanological Institute in Prishtina. It is worth mentioning the Institute’s role in the publication of bilingual dictionaries, such as the Albanian-Serbo-Croatian and Serbo-Croatian-Albanian (Prishtina, 1974) dictionaries. With the establishment of the University of Tetova on December 17, 1994 (North Macedonia), the conditions were created for the cooperation and unification of linguistic terms and technical terminology. The main centers were Tirana, Prishtina, and Tetovo, along with the university departments of Albanian language throughout the Albanian area.

Network of scientific institutions and geography of Albanian scientific centers

During the 20th century, a whole network of Albanian scientific institutions was established and consolidated (institutes, departments, universities, scientific centers and associations, academies, newsrooms, and professional and scientific commissions). This network included the following locations: Tirana and many cities in Albania, Kosovo, Skopje, Ulcinj, Cosenza, Rome, Paris, Vienna, Bucharest, Budapest, Copenhagen, Sofia, Belgrade, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Munich, Berlin, New York, Boston, Detroit, Buenos Aires, Prague, Thessaloniki, etc. From the cooperation with these centers, integration was made in Albanian linguistics, as well as European linguistics. [17, P. 13].

Organization of terminology in the Albanian language

The organized work with terminology in the Albanian language started late (after the Second World War) compared to other Western European countries, and in some extent also to Eastern European. A genuine organization for terminology began only in the 1950s. Work on the design and unification of scientific terminology in the Albanian language began in 1956, with the establishment of the terminology sector at the Institute of History and Linguistics in Tirana. In that period, special attention was paid to organized and systematic work on terminology. Also, in Kosovo, as well as the Albanian areas of Macedonia, Montenegro, and the Preshevo Valley, the need was felt to review terminological issues.

The compilation of terminological dictionaries is based on the created terminology in various fields of knowledge in the Albanian language under the influence of contacts with literature and scientific-technical terminology of foreign languages (mainly Russian), as well as a result of the introduction of modern technologies in Albania and the connection with the scientific-technical revolution in almost all spheres of human activity. In Kosovo, work in the field of Albanian terminology within the framework of the Federation of Yugoslavia was more limited to the reproduction of terminological dictionaries that were compiled in Albania and accompanied by terms from the Serbian language [12, P. 1529]. 

Albanian scholars who have dealt with terminology of different fields in the Albanian language include Lirak Dodbiba, Ferdinand Leka, Hëna Pasho, Agron Duro, Hasan Çipuri, Pajazit Nushi, Latif Susuri, Nebi Caka, Sadete Pllana, and Gani Pllana. These scholars have produced genuine theoretical works and monographs. Also, some Albanian linguists have written special scientific articles that dealt with terminology problems, such as Androkli Kostallari, Jani Thomai, Miço Samara, Xhevat Lloshi, Flutura Çitaku [11, P. 14-15], etc.

Analysis of the terminological subject for the Albanian lexicon in general

The analysis of the terminological subject in scientific discourse supports the generalizations in the form of essential statements that are valuable for the Albanian lexicon in general, such as the terminological lexicon and the general lexicon both as they come and as they approach each other. The terminological lexicon functions as an independent system within the lexical system of the Albanian language. The conception of this terminology as a system corresponds to the corresponding conceptual system. The identity of the technical field has a systemic character not only at the level of concepts, but also at the level of subfields. The conceptual content of the term and the word is more or less the same. In special primary units is the conceptual content and not the form. The identity of the terms is determined by the field of knowledge itself and the acceptance of special lexical division — specialized lexicon. All units have served as potential words directly for terms. The word is a bridge between the general lexicon and the terminological one. The difference between terminology must also be accepted. The closer the terms are to the words of the general vocabulary, the more easily they become de-termed. For systematization and high motivation, compositions with a model structure are distinguished. The ways of forming the Albanian terms from the field of technique have a more systematic character than the terms of other fields. The forms of expression of concepts are more systematic and more symmetrical. Homonymous forms are presented as two new words. The standardization of terminological units is chosen in the context of the standardization of the lexicon of the language as a whole. Each terminological subsystem in its entirety constitutes a more or less closed entity. Nowadays, there is a non-standard state in terminology where it is difficult to establish the boundary between the norm itself and the non-norm. These formulations take on double value, both as theoretical theses and as conclusions from analysis. It should be noted that modeling is used as the basic concept of the study method of any system. These systems include conceptual and terminological fields, term formation, semantic developments, paradigmatic nursery, typology of terminological dictionaries reviewed or recommended, and even the structural and semantic-conceptual types of terms themselves.  

Conclusion

The terminological lexicon from the works of the first Albanian authors (Buzuku, Budi, Bardhi, Bogdani, Kristoforidhi, etc.) is rich and brings supportive arguments for the construction of Albanian technical terminological systems in uninterrupted and progressive movements.

Technical terminologies originate from words related with concepts deriving from very old times and from different countries of the world. Universal linguistics have passed from one language to another at different times and have been translated and adapted as borrowed words or words in their own right (indigenous). They were used as special words in various fields of human activity and later as terms in technical terminology and terminologies of other fields of knowledge. This has happened in the Albanian lexicon, as well: from common words that have been used for centuries as special words, where fields of knowledge were created from words which have now entered Albanian terminological systems.

So far, the field of compiling technical terminological dictionaries in Albanian has followed the path of developing dictionaries of specific areas of knowledge, from broad (mechanics, economics, electronics, construction, medicine, agronomy, computer science, etc.) to narrow and then very narrow. However, the principles and methods on which the dictionaries of linguistics and technical sciences were compiled were borrowed from the experience of the languages of other countries with developed terminology.

At the end of the 20th century, opportunities were created for the unification of the Albanian scientific forces and for the unification of the research of Albanian linguistics and terminology in the whole Albanian area. This advanced the cooperation established in the years 1970-1980, with joint language expeditions in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, the Preshevo Valley, Montenegro, and Calabria (Italy). After 1990, any obstacle to cooperation between Albanian linguists, specialists, and terminologists with foreign Albanologists and terminologists was finally removed.

The development and enrichment of the lexicon in our time is directly related to the needs of the Albanian language and our society for words and terms that mark new concepts in linguistics, as well as in the fields of political, economic, technical, and social sciences (humanitarian).

It is necessary to compile nursery dictionaries, professional explanatory dictionaries, inverse dictionaries, paradigmatic dictionaries, ideographic dictionaries, etc. 

Список литературы / References:
  1. British standard 3669:1963 [UDC 001.4]-British standard hause, London.
  2. Bindoni, M. VOCABOLARIO FJALUER, Tecnico- Agricolo, Teknik Bujqësuer (Italiano- Albanese, Italisht- Shqip; Albanese - Italiano, Shqip - Italisht), 4000 fjalë, Shtëpia Botonjëse Casa Editrice “Kristo Luarasi”, Tiranë, 1935.
  3. Cabré-Castellvi M.T. Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and explanation, in Terminology / Cabré-Castellvi M.T. –John Benjamins Publishing Company, 9(2)/2003. -163 p.
  4. Duro, A. Terminologjia si sistem / Duro, A. -PANTEON, Tiranë, 2001.
  5. Felber, H. Terminologie als angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Gedenlschrift für Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eugen Wüster) / Felber, H.; Lang, F., Wersig, G. –K•G•Saur München, New York, London, Parsi, 1979. -16 p.
  6. Fjalor rusisht-shqip / (Editor): Androkli Kostallari, -Instituti i shkencave, RPSH, Tiramë, 1954.
  7. Kurti, F. S. Fjalor politeknik rusisht-shqip / Kurti, F. S. -“Mihal Duri”, Tiranë, 1981.
  8. Leka, F. Uhëzues për përpunimin e terminologjisë tekniko-shkencore / Leka, F. , Tiranë 1983.
  9. Marzá N. E., The specialised lexicographical aproach a step further in dictionary-making / Marzá N. E., –Peter Lang, 2009. -83 p.
  10. Pasho, H. Terminologjia shqipe-probleme dhe detyra / Pasho, H.; Duro, A. – në “GJENDJA DHE ZHVILLIMI I TERMINOLOGJISË SHQIPE PROBLEME DHE DETYRA” KONFERENCË SHKENCORE ASHSH dhe ASHAK, Tiranë, 2009.
  11. Pllana, G. Formimi i terminologjive teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm (Procese të krijimit, të pasqyrimit në gjuhë dhe të standardizimit)/ Pllana, G. – QSA IGJL, BOTIMET ALBANOLOGJIKE, Tiranë, 2017. -14-15 p.
  12. Pllana, G. Objekctives of the standardiszation of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian / Pllana, G. –WASET, june 11-12, 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark. -1529 p.
  13. Pllana, G. Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English” 2nd Symposium of Social Sciences and Humanities PhD Students "Education Culture and Society - Nowadays Challenges", in Wroclaw on 14th-17th of October 2013 at the University of Wroclaw (Poland), 2013.
  14. Pllana, S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze ? Pllana, S. – QSA IGJL, Studimet Albanologjike, Tiranë, 2014.
  15. Samara, M. Rreth leksikut politik e shoqëror në gjuhën shqipe / Samara, M. – ASHSH, Tiranë, 2008. - 6 p.
  16. Samara, M. Çështje të antonimisë në gjuhën shqipe / Samara, M. –ASHSH IGJL, Tiranë, 1985.
  17. Thomai, J. Leksikografia shqipe-trashëgimi dhe perpepektivë / Thomai, J. -ASHSH IGJL ASHAK, në LEKSIKOGRAFIA SHQIPE TRASHËGIMI DHE PERPSPEKTIVË (konferencë shkencore, 3.12.2004, Tiranë), Tiranë, 2005. -11-13 p.
  18. Thomai, J. Leksikologjia-shqipe arritje dhe probleme / Thomai, J. – ASHAK, në STUDIME FILOLOGJIKE SHQIPTARE (konferencë shkencore, 21-22 nëntor 2007, Prishtinë, 2008. -129 p.
  19. Thomai, J. Ligjërata pasuniversiatre / Thomai, J. – UNIVERSITETI FAN S. NOLI”, Korçë, 2015. -109-117 p.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. British standard 3669:1963 [UDC 001.4]-British standard hause, London.
  2. Bindoni, M. VOCABOLARIO FJALUER, Tecnico- Agricolo, Teknik Bujqësuer (Italiano- Albanese, Italisht- Shqip; Albanese- Italiano, Shqip- Italisht), 4000 fjalë, Shtëpia Botonjëse Casa Editrice “Kristo Luarasi”, Tiranë, 1935.
  3. Cabré-Castellvi M.T. Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and explanation, in Terminology / Cabré-Castellvi M.T. –John Benjamins Publishing Company, 9(2)/2003. -163 p.
  4. Duro, A. Terminologjia si sistem [Terminology as a system] / Duro, A. -PANTEON, Tiranë, 2001. [in Albanian]
  5. Felber, H. Terminologie als angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Gedenlschrift für Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eugen Wüster) / Felber, H.; Lang, F., Wersig, G.–K. G. Saur München, New York, London, Parsi, 1979. -16 p.
  6. Fjalor rusisht-shqip [Russian-Albanian Dictionary] / (Editor): Androkli Kostallari, -Institute of Sciences, Republic of Albania, Tirana, 1954. [In Russian and Albanian]
  7. Kurti, F. S. Fjalor politeknik rusisht-shqip [Russian-Albanian polytechnic dictionary] / Kurti, F. S. -“Mihal Duri”, Tiranë, 1981. [In Russian and Albanian]
  8. Leka, F. Uhëzues për përpunimin e terminologjisë tekniko-shkencore [Guide for the elaboration of technical-scientific terminology] / Leka, F. , Tiranë 1983. [In Albanian]
  9. Marzá N. E. The specialized lexicographical aproach a step further in dictionary-making / Marzá N. E. –Peter Lang, 2009. -83 p.
  10. Pasho, H. Terminologjia shqipe-probleme dhe detyra [Albanian terminology-problems and tasks]/ Pasho, H.; Duro, A. – in “GJENDJA DHE ZHVILLIMI I TERMINOLOGJISË SHQIPE PROBLEME DHE DETYRA” KONFERENCË SHKENCORE [THE CONDITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIAN TERMINOLOGY PROBLEMS AND TASKS] SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA and AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES AND ARTS OF KOSOVA, Tiranë, 2009. [In Albanian]
  11. Pllana, G. Formimi i terminologjive teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm (Procese të krijimit, të pasqyrimit në gjuhë dhe të standardizimit) [Formation of Albanian technical terminologies on the basis of the general lexicon (Processes of creation, reflection in language and standardization)]/ Pllana, G. – Center for Albanological Studies Institute of Linguistics and Literature, ALBANOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS, Tiranë, 2017.-14-15 p. [In Albanian]
  12. Pllana, G., Objekctives of the standardiszation of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian / Pllana, G. –WASET, june 11-12, 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark. -1529 p.
  13. Pllana, G. Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English” 2nd Symposium of Social Sciences and Humanities PhD Students "Education Culture and Society - Nowadays Challenges", in Wroclaw on 14th-17th of October 2013 at the University of Wroclaw (Poland), 2013.
  14. Pllana, S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze [Basic terminology of mechanics in Albanian and English languages] / Pllana, S. - Center for Albanological Studies Institute of Linguistics and Literature, Albanological publications, Tiranë, 2014. [In Albanian]
  15. Samara, M. Rreth leksikut politik e shoqëror në gjuhën shqipe [About the political and social lexicon in the Albanian language] / Samara, M. –AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA, Tiranë, 2008. -6 p. [In Albanian]
  16. Samara, M. Çështje të antonimisë në gjuhën shqipe [Issues of antonymy in the Albanian language] / Samara, M. –AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA Institute of Linguistics and Literature, Tiranë, 1985. [In Albanian]
  17. Thomai, J. Leksikografia shqipe-trashëgimi dhe perpepektivë [Albanian lexicography-heritage and perspective] / Thomai, J. -AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA IGJL ASHAK AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES AND ARTS OF KOSOVA in LEKSIKOGRAFIA SHQIPE TRASHËGIMI DHE PERPSPEKTIVË [ALBANIAN LEXICOGRAPHY EXERCISE AND PERSPECTIVE] (scientific conference, 3.12.2004, Tiranë), Tiranë, 2005.-11-13 p. [In Albanian]
  18. Thomai, J. Leksikologjia-shqipe arritje dhe probleme [Albanian Lexicology achievements and problems] / Thomai, J. -AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES AND ARTS OF KOSOVO, in ALBANIAN PHILOLOGICAL STUDIES (scientific conference, 21-22 November 2007, Prishtinë), Prishtinë, 2008.-129 p. [In Albanian]
  19. Thomai, J. Ligjërata pasuniversiatre (leksikologji, semantikë, leksikografi) [Postgraduate lectures (lexicology, semantics, lexicography)] / Thomai, J. –UNIVERSITETI UNIVERSITY “FAN S. NOLI”, Albania, Korçë, 2015. -109-117 p. [In Albanian]

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