Art#: 4528
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.19

Цитировать

Электронная ссылка | Печатная ссылка

Скопируйте отформатированную библиографическую ссылку через буфер обмена или перейдите по одной из ссылок для импорта в Менеджер библиографий.
Pllana S. BORROWINGS FROM ROMANCE LANGUAGES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMICS / S. Pllana, E. Pllana, G. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 177—180. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%b8%d0%bc%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b2%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f-%d0%b8%d0%b7-%d1%80%d0%be%d0%bc%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%b8%d1%85-%d1%8f%d0%b7%d1%8b%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%b2-%d0%b2-%d1%8d/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.19
Pllana S. BORROWINGS FROM ROMANCE LANGUAGES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMICS / S. Pllana, E. Pllana, G. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 177—180. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.19

Импортировать


Плана С.1, Плана E.2, Плана Г.3
1, 3 , Приштинский университет «Хасан Приштина», Приштина, Республика Косово; 2 , Студенты в Докторатуре Юго-восточный европейский университет, Тетово, Республика Северная Македония
ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЯ ИЗ РОМАНСКИХ ЯЗЫКОВ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ АЛБАНСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Аннотация
При разработке и обработке терминологии одной из самых обсуждаемых проблем является проблема заимствований. Проблема языкового контакта не нова в лингвистике, но есть много вопросов, которые не были должным образом объяснены или их объяснили различными или неуместными способами. Терминология экономики – это лингвистический материал, на котором основан данный документ. Эта статья направлена на анализ места заимствований в данной терминологии, а также на работу, которая была проделана для их замены терминами албанского происхождения. Рассматривая характеристики римских заимствований в албанском языке, мы попытались продемонстрировать присутствие и влияние французского и итальянского языков на терминологию экономики. Другие романские языки, такие как испанский, португальский, каталанский и румынский, не оказали существенного влияния на албанский язык.
Ключевые слова: заимствования, романские заимствования, терминология, терминология экономики, управление, финансы.
Страницы: 177 - 180

Pllana S.1, Pllana E.2, Pllana G.3
1, 3 , University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; 2 , Student in doctor studies, South East European University, Tetovo, Republic of Northern Macedonia
BORROWINGS FROM ROMANCE LANGUAGES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMICS
Abstract
In the development and processing of terminology, one of the most discussed problems is that of borrowings. The problem of language contact is not a new topic in linguistics, but there are many issues that have not been adequately explained or have been explained in different or inappropriate ways. The terminology of economics is the linguistic material on which this paper is based. This paper aims to analyze the place of borrowings in this terminology, as well as the work that has been done to replace them with terms of Albanian origin. By addressing the characteristics of Roman borrowings in Albanian, we have tried to demonstrate the presence and influence of French and Italian on the terminology of economics. Other Romance languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian, have not had a significant impact on the Albanian language.
Keywords: borrowings, Romance borrowings, terminology, terminology of economics, administration, finance.
Pages: 177 - 180
Почта авторов / Author Email: , eddona.p[at]gmail.com,

Introduction 

Romanization has operated for many centuries in all countries of Western Europe and Southeast Europe, and it has been a long, political, historical-cultural, and linguistic process. Romanization in Southeast Europe began with the establishment of Roman rule in the Balkans, Illyria, Greece, Thrace, and Dacia, until the end of the 4th century. This was when the Roman Empire was divided into two parts — the West with the capital of Rome and the East with the capital of Byzantium. Illyria belonged to the Byzantine Empire. However, it maintained ties with Rome, so Latin influence continued even after this division [13, P. 317-320].

About the Roman borrowings in Albanian

Albanian, as an Indo-European language, is among the oldest languages in the Balkans, and it is the daughter of the Illyrian language. This language was spoken by the ancient Illyrians who inhabited the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea. Throughout history, it has always been in contact with the Latin language of Rome, a language spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire.

It is well-known that the influence of Latin on Albanian began quite early on and lasted for several centuries. The Latin element in Albanian was studied by many foreign and Albanian scholars [2]. Prof. Eqrem Çabej has stated, “One of the main tasks of Albanian linguistics, in addition to theoretical research, is and remains the enrichment of the language with elements of its own resources and its cleansing from the mass of foreign words that have flooded from abroad and that are flooding even nowadays.” [2, P.103].

Lyceum of Korça

The Lyceum of Korça, the first school of general culture in Albania, opened its doors on October 25, 1917, at the time when the Albanian Republic of Korça was functioning. The language used was French, with the exception of Albanian, which was given as a separate language. In the mid-1920s, German was introduced into the curriculum. The Lyceum of Korça was a secular high school with a national character where boys and girls studied together regardless of social class or religion. From 1917 to 1943, 1,115 students from Albania and Kosovo attended the National Lyceum of Korça [20].

Terms borrowed from Roman languages in the terminology of economics

According to certain criteria, borrowed terms are of two types: 

  • foreign international terms  
  • foreign non-international terms

 

In terminological dictionaries, the Albanized words are reflected in different ways:

  • terms that are given and also used only in Albanian
  • Albanian terms that are accompanied by a foreign term, where the Albanian word is given as the norm
  • Albanian terms that have been associated with or are given as synonyms alongside the foreign term, Albanized terms partially replacing foreign affixes with Albanian ones

 

The influence of the cultures of peoples who speak French and Italian is manifested in various forms, including almost all spheres of vocabulary and living environment, of space and time, and also in many areas of economics.

Below, we will present some examples. The first term is in Albanian and is compared with French and Italian in the general lexicon of Albanian, especially displayed as book lexicon, but used in various fields of economics.

Results

Albanian – French

abonim,-i-abonnement

abonohem-s’abonner

abonoj-abonner

abonues-i abonné

aksionar,-e-actionnaire

aksionar,-i-actionaire

aksion-i-action

ambalazh,-i-emballage

ambalazhim,-i-emballage

ambalazhoj-emballer

ankand,-i-enchère

anket/ë-a-enquète

anomali,-a-anomalie

anonimi,-a-anonymat

anonym,-e-anonyme

anulim,-i-annulation

anuloj-anuler

aprovim,-i-approbation

aprovoj-approuver

arbitrarisht-arbitrairement

arbitraritet,-i-arbitraire

arbitrazh,-i-arbitrage

arbitroj-arbitrer

asortiment,-i-assortimento

asortiment-assortiment

balancim,-i-balancement

balancoj-balancer

bankë,-a-banque

bankënotë,-a-billet a banque

bankier,-i-banquier

debat,-i-debat

debitor/-i-débiteur

ekonomik,-e-économique

ekonomik/ë-a- économique

ekonomikisht- économiquement

ekonomiqar,-e-économe

ekonomist,-i-économiste

 

ekonommi,-a-économie

eksport,-i-exportation

eksportim,-i-exportation (action d’exporter)

eksportoj-exporter

eksportues,-e-exporteur

eksportues,-i-exporteur

ekspozim,-i-exhibition

ekspozit/ë-a-exposistion

ekspozoj-expose

ekuipazh-i-équipage

ekzaminim,-i-examen

ekzaminoj-examiner

ekzekutim,-i-exécution

ekzekutiv,-e-exécutif

ekzekutoj-exécuter

ekzemplar,-i-exemplaire

ekzistoj-exister

emisar,-i-émissaire

empirik,-e-empirique

etiket/ë-a-étiquette

etiketim,-i-étiquetage

etiketoj-étiqueter

evidenc/ë-a- evidence

furnizim-i-fourniture

furnizoj-furnir

furnizues-e-fournisseur

garanci,-a-garantie

garant,-i-garant

garantim,-i-garantie

garantoj-garantir

intensivisht-intensivement

interes,-i-intérêt

kontabilitet-i-comtabilité

kontroll,-i-contrôle

kontrolloj-contrôler

kontrollor,-i-contrôlleur

kontrollues,-i-contrôlleur

 

kredi,-a-crédit

kreditim,-i- créditeur

kreditoj-créditer

kupon,-i-coupon

livroj-livrer

magazinë,-a-magasin

organizat/ë-a-organisation

organizativ,-e-organisationnel

organizim,-i-organisation

organizoj-organiser

organizuar (i,e)-organisé

organizues,-e-organisateur

plasman,-i-pacement

rabat,-i-rabais

reklam/ë-a-réclame

reklamim,-i-réclame

reklamues,-e-réclament

rekompensim,-i-récompense

rekompensoj- récompenser

rentabël-rentable

rentabil,-e-rentabile

rentabilitet,-i-rentabilité

rentë,-a-rente

stabilitet,-i- stabilité

stabilizim,-i-stabilisation

stabilizoj-stabiliser

stabil-stable

stazhist-stagiaire

stazh-stage

tarif/ë-a-tarif

tarifës (i)-tarifaire

tarifoj-tarifer

trezor,-i-trésor

valorizim,-i-valorisati

 

Albanian-Italian

afarist,-e-affariste

afarist,-i-affaristi

afarizëm,-i-affarismo

bankë,-a-banka

bankrot,-i –bancarotta

debitor,-i-debito

debitor,-i-debitore

dogan/ë,-a-dogana

doganës (i,e)-doganale

doganier,-i-doganale

doganoj-doganare

falimentim-i-fallimento

falimentoj-fallire

fatur/ë-a-fattura

faturoj-fatturare

faturues,-i-fatturista

financ/ë-a-finanza

financier-i-finanziere

financim-i-finanziamento

financoj-finanziare

gjirant,-i-girante

 

intensifikim,-i-intensification

intensifikoj-intensificare

intensifikoj-intensifie

intensiv,-e-intensif

intensiv,-e-intensificatione

kambial,-i-cambiale

kapar,-i-caparra

kaparoj-caparrare

kasafort/ë-a-casaforte

klient,-i-cliente

konsum,-i-consumatione

konsumator,-i-consumatore

kontabël-comtable

kosto-costo

magazinë,-a-magaszzinaggio

magazinier,-i-magasinier

magazinier,-i-magazziniere

portofol,-i-portofoglio

rabat,-i-rab/atto (-abasso)

reform/ë-a-riforma

reformoj-rifondare

 

reformuar (i,e)-reformabile

repart,-i-reparto

revizion,-i-rexisione

revizor,-i-rexisore

rieksportim,-i-rieskortazione

rieksportoj-riesportare

rielaborim,-i-rielaborazione

rielaboroj-rielaborare

sabotim,-i-sabotaggio

sabotoj-sabotare

sabotues,-i-saboter

saldo-ja-saldo

skadim,-i-scadenza

skadon-scadere

skaduar (i,e)-scadente

valut/ë-a-valuta

xhiro-giro

 

Conclusion

Borrowing (as a process) leads to the birth of a wide chain of parallels. These parallels create inter-linguistic dependencies and a relative stability that makes it possible for them to etymologically preserve their origin. In this way, such borrowings gain the status of internationalisms (international words), which are mostly translatable. Compared to the foreign word, the borrowed word is completely integrated into the system of the receiving language. Foreign words should be used in those cases when they bring a new meaning, a new nuance of meaning, etc., which we cannot express with the tools of Albanian itself.

When considering Albania's relations with Italy, relations that also derive from geographical proximity, the linguistic influence that came from Italy continued even after the end of Roman rule. Also, in Albania, there were schools in the French language in Korça and its surrounding areas during the years 1931-1939. At the same time, a number of Albanians graduated from French universities and brought with them many words and terms of the French language.

As economics is a field with a wide scope of practice that you could say is part of people's daily lives, the terminology of economics should help them in communication with specialists to ensure accurate judgments and actions.

In reality, the Albanian language resisted the strong influence of Latin and Romance languages and was not assimilated by them.

Borrowed words from Romance languages in Albanian are adapted from a phonological point of view according to the principles and phonological habits of the Albanian language.

Therefore, work should continue in regards to supplementing and revising dictionaries for specific areas of the economy, to improve the shortcomings carried over so far, and especially to solve the problems of the time in this terminology.

 

 

 

 

Список литературы / References:
  1. Bejta, M. Fjalor frëngjisht-shqip / Bejta, M. –ETMM, Prishtinë, 1985.
  2. Çabej, E. Studime gjuhësore IV / Çabej, E. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1977, -103 p.
  3. Cabré-Castellvi M.T. Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and explanation, in Terminology / Cabré-Castellvi M.T. –John Benjamins Publishing Company, 9(2)/2003. -165 p.
  4. Deanović, M.; Jernej, J. Talijansko hrvatski ili srpski rječnik (Vocabulario Italiano Croato o Serbo) / Deanović, M.; Jernej, J. –IRO “Školska knjiga”, Zagreb, 1989.
  5. Felber, H. Terminologie als angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Gedenlschrift für Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eugen Wüster) / Felber, H.; Lang, F., Wersig, G. –K•G•Saur München, New York, London, Parsi, 1979. -16 p.
  6. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe A-M, – RLINDJA, Prishtinë, 1981.
  7. Fjalor i termave të bankës 32 (shqip-anglisht-frëngjisht-italisht-rusisht), –ASHRSH, Tiranë, 2014.
  8. Gorani, H. Problemet kuptimore në terminologjinë ekonomike / Gorani, H. –GJENDJA DHE ZGVILLIMI I TERMINOLOGJISË SHQIPE PROBLEM DHE DETYRA, ASHSH ASHAK, Tiranë. 2009.
  9. Kokona, V. Fjalor shqip-frëngjisht / Kokona, V. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1989.
  10. Kostallari, A. Gjuha letrare kombëtare shqipe dhe epoka jonë / Kostallari, A. – “Sf”, nr. 4, Tiranë, 1984.
  11. Leka, F. Aspekte të zhvillimit të terminologjisë tekniko-shkencore pas Çlirimit, – “Sf”, 1970/1, IGJL, Tiranë, 1970.
  12. Luboteni, G., Menaxhmenti bankar / Luboteni, G., Prishtinë, 2015.
  13. Mansaku, S. Studime për historinë e gjuhës shqipe Vëllimi I, –AST IGJL, Tiranë, 2018. -317p; -315 p.
  14. Marzá N. E., The specialised lexicographical aproach a step further in dictionary-making, –Peter Lang, 2009. -83 p.
  15. Ndreca, M. Fjalor fjalësh e shprehjesh të huaja / Ndreca, M. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1986.
  16. Nuhiu, V. Ndikimet ndërgjuhësore / Nuhiu, V. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1990.
  17. Pasho, H. Terminologjia shqipe-probleme dhe detyra/ Pasho, H.; Duro, A. –“GJENDJA DHE ZHVILLIMI I TERMINOLOGJISË SHQIPE PROBLEME DHE DETYRA” KONFERENCË SHKENCORE, ASHSH dhe ASHAK, Tiranë, 2009.
  18. Pllana, G. Termat e huazuar nga italishtja dhe frëngjishtja në terminologjinë e mekanikës në gjuhën shqipe / Pllana. G. –KËRKIME GJUHËSORE III Konferencë shkencore ndërkombëtare (11 korrik 2014), Tiranë, 2015.
  19. Xhuvani, A. Pastërtia e gjuhës, Vepra 1 / Xhuvani, A. –ASHRSH, Tiranë, 1980, -110 p.
  20. Liceu Francez, historia e shkollës së famshme dhe fati i ish-nxënësve [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://www.panorama.com.al/liceu-francez-historia-e-shkolles-se-famshme-dhe-fati-i-ish-nxenesve/ (accessed: 05.06.2020)

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Bejta, M. Fjalor frëngjisht-shqip [French-Albanian dictionary] / Bejta, M. –ETMM, Prishtinë, 1985.
  2. Çabej, E. Studime gjuhësore IV [Linguistic Studies IV] / Çabej, E. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1977, -103 p. [In Albanian]
  3. Cabré-Castellvi M.T. Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and explanation, in Terminology / Cabré-Castellvi M.T. –John Benjamins Publishing Company, 9(2)/2003. -165 p.
  4. Deanović, M.; Jernej, J. Talijansko hrvatski ili srpski rječnik (Vocabulario Italiano Croato o Serbo) / Deanović, M.; Jernej, J. –IRO “Školska knjiga”, Zagreb, 1989.
  5. Felber, H. Terminologie als angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Gedenlschrift für Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eugen Wüster) / Felber, H.; Lang, F., Wersig, G. –K•G•Saur München, New York, London, Parsi, 1979. -16 p.
  6. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe A-M [Today’s Albanian Language Dictionary], – RLINDJA, Prishtinë, 1981. [In Albanian]
  7. Fjalor i termave të bankës 32 (shqip-anglisht-frëngjisht-italisht-rusisht) [Banking terminology/Scientific and technical terminology 32 [Albanian-English-French-Italian-Russian] ]– AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA, Tirana, 2014. [In Albanian]
  8. Gorani, H., Problemet kuptimore në terminologjinë ekonomike [Semantic problems in economic terminology] / Gorani, H. – [Situation and development of Albanian terminology, problems and tasks] Scientific Conference, AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA & AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES AND ARTS OF KOSOVA, Tiranë, 2009. [In Albanian]
  9. Kokona, V. Fjalor shqip-frëngjisht [Albanian-French dictionary] / Kokona, V. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1989. [In Albanian]
  10. Kostallari, A. Gjuha letrare kombëtare shqipe dhe epoka jonë [Albanian national literary language and our era]/ Kostallari, A. – “Sf”, nr. 4, Tiranë, 1984. [In Albanian]
  11. Leka, F. Aspekte të zhvillimit të terminologjisë tekniko-shkencore pas Çlirimit, – “Sf”, 1970/1, IGJL, Tiranë, 1970. [In Albanian]
  12. Luboteni, G. Menaxhmenti bankar [Banking Management] / Luboteni, G., Prishtinë, 2015. [In Albanian]
  13. Mansaku, S. Studime për historinë e gjuhës shqipe Vëllimi I [Studies on the history of the Albanian language Volume I] / Mansaku, S. –ASA IGJL, Tiranë, 2018. -317p; -315 p. [In Albanian]
  14. Marzá N. E., The specialised lexicographical aproach a step further in dictionary-making, –Peter Lang, 2009. -83 p.
  15. Ndreca, M. Fjalor fjalësh e shprehjesh të huaja [Dictionary of foreign words and expressions] / Ndreca, M. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1986. [In Albanian]
  16. Nuhiu, V. Ndikimet ndërgjuhësore [Interlingual influences] / Nuhiu, V. –RILINDJA, Prishtinë, 1990. [In Albanian]
  17. Pasho, H. Terminologjia shqipe-probleme dhe detyra [Albanian terminology-problems and tasks] / Pasho, H.; Duro, A. – Scientific Conference, AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA & AKADEMIA OF SCIENCES AND ARTS OF KOSOVA, Tiranë, 2009. [In Albanian]
  18. Pllana, G., Termat e huazuar nga italishtja dhe frëngjishtja në terminologjinë e mekanikës në gjuhën shqipe [Borrowed terms from Italian and French in the terminology of mechanics in the Albanian language] / Pllana, G. -Linguistic Research III International Scientific Conference (July 11, 2014), Tirana, 2015. [In Albanian]
  19. 19. Xhuvani, A. Pastërtia e gjuhës, Vepra 1, Tiranë, 1980, -110 p. [In Albanian]
  20. Liceu Francez, historia e shkollës së famshme dhe fati i ish-nxënësve [French Lyceum, the history of the famous school and the fate of former students] [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://www.panorama.com.al/liceu-francez-historia-e-shkolles-se-famshme-dhe-fati-i-ish-nxenesve/ (accessed: 05.06.2020) [In Albanian]

Лицензия Creative Commons - Creative Common Licence
Это произведение доступно по – This material is available under Creative Commons «Attribution» («Атрибуция») 4.0 Всемирная