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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.3

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Balzhinimaeva B.D. ADAPTATION OF CHINESE LOAN WORDS IN THE LANGUAGE OF SHENEHEN BURYATS OF INNER MONGOLIA OF CHINA / B.D. Balzhinimaeva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 185—187. — URL: https://rulb.org/ru/article/%d0%b0%d0%b4%d0%b0%d0%bf%d1%82%d0%b0%d1%86%d0%b8%d1%8f-%d0%ba%d0%b8%d1%82%d0%b0%d0%b9%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%b8%d1%85-%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%b8%d0%bc%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b2%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b9-%d0%b2/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.3
Balzhinimaeva B.D. ADAPTATION OF CHINESE LOAN WORDS IN THE LANGUAGE OF SHENEHEN BURYATS OF INNER MONGOLIA OF CHINA / B.D. Balzhinimaeva // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2020. — № 2 (22). — С. 185—187. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.22.2.3

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Бальжинимаева Б.Д.1
1 , Бурятский государственный университет им. Д. Банзарова, Улан-Удэ, Россия
АДАПТАЦИЯ КИТАЙСКИХ ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЙ В ЯЗЫКЕ ШЭНЭХЭНСКИХ БУРЯТ ВНУТРЕННЕЙ МОНГОЛИИ КИТАЯ
Аннотация
В статье рассматривается адаптация китайских заимствованных слов в языке шэнэхэнских бурят Внутренней Монголии Китая. Взаимодействие любых двух контактирующих языков приводит к интерференции и столкновение двух языковых систем происходит на трех уровнях: фонетическом, лексическом и грамматическом. Лексическая интерференция не так стеснена, как фонетическая и грамматическая, и при столкновении языков именно в этой области наблюдаются наибольшие изменения.
Ключевые слова: бурятский язык, говоры, язык-реципиент, заимствование, китаизмы, адаптация заимствований, лексическая семантика, словообразовательный потенциал.
Страницы: 185 - 187

Balzhinimaeva B.D.1
1 , Dorji Banzarov Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia
ADAPTATION OF CHINESE LOAN WORDS IN THE LANGUAGE OF SHENEHEN BURYATS OF INNER MONGOLIA OF CHINA
Abstract
The article discusses the adaptation of Chinese loan words in the language of the Shenehen Buryats of Inner Mongolia of China. The interaction of any contacting languages leads to interference and collision of two language systems and occurs at three levels: phonetic, lexical, and grammatical. Lexical interference is not as constrained as phonetic and grammatical, and when languages contact, the most significant changes are observed in this area.
Keywords: Buryat language, dialects, recipient language, loan word, Sinicism, adaptation of borrowings, lexical semantics, word-formation potential.
Pages: 185 - 187
Почта авторов / Author Email: bairka2002[at]list.ru

The circumstances that developed in the 20s of the 20th century intensified migration processes among the Buryat population; as a result, a small part of the Buryats moved to China. They currently reside in the region called Shenehen Hulunbuir located in the Inner Mongolia of China. Officially, they belong to the Mongolian nationality and are not distinguished as Buryats. In Buryatia, they are called Shenehen Buryats.

The contacts of peoples with different material and spiritual cultures lead to mutual enrichment through the process of borrowing, which is always reflected in the language, in particular, in vocabulary. In the language of Shenehen Buryats there are borrowings from Turkic, Tungusic, Chinese and Russian languages, which is a reflection of the mutual influence of bordering cultures and languages.

Phonetic adaptation of the word. Becoming a part of the recipient language, loan words do not remain unchanged; they comply with the laws of the borrowing language and undergo various alterations. Chinese words underwent significant phonetic changes adapting to the peculiarities of articulation of the Buryat language. Qualitative differences between the phonetic systems of the Chinese and Buryat languages consisting of a different composition of phonemes, as well as varying pronunciation of similar sounds and presence of specific sound patterns, led to a phonetic adaptation of Sinicism. This type of borrowed lexemes in the Shenehen Buryat language functions in all spheres of life and is represented in all thematic groups and parts of speech. For example: буу «gun, firearm» < chin. pào «tool, canon,» ноён «bureaucrat, head» < chin.  lǎoye «master,» тианбао «wallet» < chin.  qiánbāo «wallet», интоо «cherry» < chin.  yīngtao «cherry,» лий «pear»  < chin. lízi «pear,» цоумэй «wild strawberry» < chin.  cǎoméi «wild strawberry,» путоу «grapes» < chin. pútao «grapes», наймаан «sale» < chin.  mǎimаi «trade, sale»,  салин «salary» < chin. qiánliáng «cash salary,» соондо «garlic» < chin. suàntóu «garlic,» шуудии «cell phone» < chin. shǒujī «cell phone,» бингаа «cookies» < chin. bǐnggān «cookies.»

Semantic adaptation. From the semantic point of view, all Sinicisms are divided into two groups: a) those retaining their original direct and figurative meanings: ган «steel,» бандан «bench,» бообо «kind of cookie,» лонхо «flask, bottle, vial» etc. b) which to one degree or another have changed their meanings by means of narrowing, expanding or rethinking.

When polysemous Chinese words are borrowed, their meaning is narrowed. The reason for this is the specification of the meaning or loss of those meanings if there are words expressing the same ideas in the recipient language: биирэ «brush for writing» < chin. 1. «brush»; 2. «pen»; 3. «feather»; 4. «pencil»; сампин «abacus» < chin. suànpan 1. «abacus»; 2. «calculation, idea»; жанжан «commander» < chin. jiāngjūn 1. «general»; 2. «high command staff; command,» etc.

The inclusion of Sinicisms into the lexical system is evidenced by the expansion of the original meanings of a number of words. The expansion of the semantic meaning of Chinese borrowings was manifested in the fact that as a result of their prolonged use, some Sinicisms acquired additional meanings to the remaining original ones [5, p. 139]. Metaphorical transfers based on the functional sign and on the similarity of external signs and forms are distinguished. For example, on a functional basis, the meanings of the following words have expanded:

1) chin. Bāodān «wrapper, sheet, knot scarf» > баадан 1) «cloth, wrapping cloth, sheet, scarf, breadth, piece of cloth for wrapping something, for a knot»; 2) «diaper, knot, knot with things; bundle.»

2) chin. kangzi «clay bed for half of the house used for starting a fire and as a bed» > ханза 1) «box, chest (on a dap)»; 2) rur. stove».

3) chin. cāng «pantry >сан(г) 1. «treasury (money, property belonging to the state or community, organization)»; 2. «fund, storage of something.»

4) chin. yá mén «order, presence» > яаман 1. «official institution, public office»; 2. «ministry.»

5) chin. Xìngzhì «omen, sign» > шэнжэ 1. «form, kind»; 2. «omen, sign»; 3. «property.»

6) chin. «target» > бай 1. «target, aim»; 2. «sign, goal,» 3. fig. «competition, the contest.»

Loan words are one of the ways of forming homonyms. Many Chinese loan words coincide in form with the words that already exist in the Shenehen Buryat language. For example, бай «target, aim» < chin. «target» and бай – a form of an imperative and optative mood derived from the verb байх «to be, to abide; to exist»; зууха «oven, stove, hearth» < chin. zàohuǒ «iron stove» and зууха «keep in your teeth; grab with teeth, bite.»

Sinicisms supplement synonymous series of words. For example, тайбан < chin. tàipíng «peace, tranquility» — амгалан «calm, peaceful»; салин < chin. qiángliáng «monetary funds» — хүлhэн «зsalary,» янза < chin. yàngzi «image, manner, method» — маяг «kind, form,» сюнджоу «bra» < chin. xiōngzhàoхөхөбшэ «bra,» сянляар «chain, bead» < chin. xiànglián «chain, bead» — гэнжэ «chain.»

Grammatical adaptation of the word. Chinese loan words denoting the names of objects of reality that exist in the form of separate copies take the indicators of plurality. For example: буу «gun» — буунууд «guns», хюуза «brush» — хюузанууд «brushes», сонхо «window» — сонхонууд «windows» etc. The names of abstract concepts are irrelevant to a numerical value and cannot be combined with quantitative numerals; for example, ган «drought.» There is no borrowing of the plural form, the indicator of which is the men suffix.

Verb forms are derived from nouns, for example, Байза, Толтододяньхуаадахабайгаа «Yes, we should call Tolto» (derived from the noun дяньхуа «telephone»).

According to L.B. Badmaeva "semantic loan-translation from the Chinese language (for example, дянхуадаахадосл. «Phone + be able to pick up») form expressions in the language of Shenehen Buryat language, the compatibility of the elements of which is not typical for the literary Buryat language (comp. with literary Buryat телефоноорхонходохо «call by phone»). Such cases indicate notional borrowings» [1, p. 19].

Word-building capabilities are an important indicator of the degree of assimilation of a loan word. In Mongolian languages, word formation is carried out both morphologically and syntactically. Morphological word-formation if performed mainly through a suffix as it is used by all changeable parts of speech: — гүй: шэнжэгүй «vile, dishonorable; worthless; despicable» from шэнжэ «form, type, sign, omen, property» (< chin. xìngzhì «character»); гандасатай «arid» from гандаса «aridity» (< chin. gān «dryness, aridity, drying») [4, p. 51].

Thus, Sinicisms are fully adapted to the norms of the language of the Shenehen Buryats. Their long time stability, acquired grammatical characteristics, and the ability to form new words through word production are direct evidence that they have become an inevitable part of the vocabulary of the language.

 

*Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РФФИ-МинОКН в рамках научного проекта № 19-512-44006 [The study was carried out with the financial support of the RFBR-MinOCN within the framework of Science Project No. 19-512-44006].

Список литературы / References:
  1. Бадмаева Л.Б. Об особенностях языка шэнэхэнских бурят / Бадмаева Л.Б. // История и внешние связи бурятского языка. – Улан-Удэ: Изд-во БНЦ СО РАН, 2004. – С. 17-30.
  2. Большой академический монгольско-русский словарь. – М., 2001-2002. – Т. 1-4.
  3. Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. Адаптация китаизмов в монгольских языках / Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. // Вестник Бурятского университета. – Сер. 18: Востоковедение. – Вып. 3. – Улан-Удэ: Изд-во Бурятского госуниверситета, 2006. - С. 187-193.
  4. Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. Китаизмы в морфологическом способе образования слов в монгольских языках / Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. // Вестник Бурятского государственного университета. – Вып. 8. – Улан-Удэ: Изд-во Бурятского госуниверситета, 2015. - С. 50-53.
  5. Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. Расширение смыслового объема китаизмов в монгольских языках / Дамдинова Б.-Х.В. // Вестник Бурятского государственного университета. – Вып. 9. – Улан-Удэ: Изд-во Бурятского госуниверситета, 2009. - С. 136-140.
  6. Дондокова Д.Д. Китайские заимствованные элементы в бурятском языке / Дондокова Д.Д. // История и внешние связи бурятского языка. – Улан-Удэ: Изд-во БНЦ СО РАН, 2004. – С. 120-137.
  7. Сүхбаатар О. Монгол хэлний харь үгийн толь / Сүхбаатар О. – Улаанбаатар, 1999.
  8. Черемисов К.М. Бурятско-русский словарь / Черемисов К.М. – М., 1973.
  9. Китайско-русский, русско-китайский онлайн словарь [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://cidian.ru/ (дата обращения: 15.04.2020)

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Badmaeva L.B. Ob osobennostyakh yazyka shenehenskikh buryat [On the Peculiarities of the Language of the Shenehen Buryats] / Badmaeva L.B. // Istoriya i vneshniye svyazi buryatskogo yazyka. [History and External Links of the Buryat Language]. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing House of the BSC SB RAS], 2004. – P. 17-30. [In Russian]
  2. Bolshoi akademicheskii mongolsko-russkii slovar [Big Academic Mongolian-Russian Dictionary]. – M., 2001-2002. – V. 1-4. [In Russian]
  3. Damdinova B.-Kh.V. Adaptatsiya kitaizmov v mongolskikh yazykakh [Adaptation of Sinicism in Mongolian Languages] / Damdinova B.-Kh.V. // Vestnik Buryatskogo universiteta. – Ser. 18: Vostokovedeniye [Bulletin of the Buryat University. – Ser. 18: Oriental Studies]. – Vol. 3. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing House of the Buryat State University, 2006. – P. 187-193. [In Russian]
  4. Damdinova B.-Kh.V. Kitaizmy v morfologicheskom sposobe obrazovaniya slov v mongolskikh yazykakh [Sinicisms in Morphological Formation of Words in Mongolian Languages] / Damdinova B.-Kh.V. // Vestnik Buryatskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Buryat State University]. – Vol. 8. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing House of the Buryat State University, 2015. - P. 50-53. [In Russian]
  5. Damdinova B.-Kh.V. Rasshirenie smyslovogo obyema kitaizmov v mongolskikh yazykakh [Expansion of Semantic Volume of Sinicism in Mongolian Languages] / Damdinova B.-Kh.V. // Vestnik Buryatskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Buryat State University]. – Vol. 9. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing House of the Buryat State University, 2009. – P. 136-140. [In Russian]
  6. Dondokova D.D. Kitaiskie zaimstvovannye elementy v buryatskom yazyke [Chinese Borrowings in the Buryat Language] / Dondokova D.D. // Istoriya i vneshniye svyazi buryatskogo yazyka [History and External Links of the Buryat Language]. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing House of the BSC SB RAS, 2004. – P. 120-137. [In Russian]
  7. Sүhbaatar O. Mongol helnijhar’үgijn tol’ [Mongolian language dictionary] / Sүhbaatar O. – Ulaanbaatar, 1999.
  8. Cheremisov K.M. Buryatsko-russkii slovar [Buryat-Russian Dictionary] / Cheremisov K.M. – M., 1973. [In Russian]
  9. Sino-Russian, Russian-Chinese online dictionary [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://cidian.ru/ (accessed: 04/15/2020)

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