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DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18454/RULB.7.02

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Balabas N.N. NEW METHOD OF PREFIXAL WORD-FORMATION IN FRENCH / N.N. Balabas // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2016. — № 3 (7). — С. 74—76. — URL: http://rulb.org/ru/article/novoe-v-prefiksalnom-sposobe-slovoobrazovaniya-francuzskogo-yazyka/ (дата обращения: 19.07.2019. ). doi:10.18454/RULB.7.02
Balabas N.N. NEW METHOD OF PREFIXAL WORD-FORMATION IN FRENCH / N.N. Balabas // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2016. — № 3 (7). — С. 74—76. doi:10.18454/RULB.7.02

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Балабас Н.Н.1
1Кандидат филологических наук, Московский государственный областной университет
НОВОЕ В ПРЕФИКСАЛЬНОМ СПОСОБЕ СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЯ ФРАНЦУЗСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Аннотация
Предпринятое исследование основано на анализе неологизмов, представленных в аутентичной прессе и интернет-изданиях 2008-2016 годов. Актуальность статьи определена активным использованием префиксальных новообразований в современном французском языке. Полученные данные позволили выявить новый префиксальный элемент, отличающийся деривационной активностью. Проведённый анализ представляет возможным удостовериться в том, что префиксация, по-прежнему, является одним из самых распространённых словообразовательных способов в современном французском языке.
Ключевые слова: словарный состав языка; словообразование; способ словообразования, префиксация, аутентичная пресса.
Страницы: 74 - 76

Balabas N.N.1
1Phd in Philology, Moscow State Regional University
NEW METHOD OF PREFIXAL WORD-FORMATION IN FRENCH
Abstract
The undertaken research is based on the analysis of neologisms taken from authentic media and Internet publications in 2008-2016. The relevance of the article is defined by the active use of prefixed formations in the modern French language. The findings of the research revealed a new prefixed element, characterized by high derivation activity. The conducted analysis demonstrates that prefixation remains one of the most common ways of word formation in the modern French language.
Keywords: the vocabulary of the language; word formation; derivation method, prefixation, authentic press.
Pages: 74 - 76
Почта авторов / Author Email: balnani@mail.ru

The reliability of the undertaken analysis is determined by the usage of the extensive body of factual materials collected by the method of continuous sampling. We studied 1907 pages of text editions of Capital, le Point [12], le Nouvel Observateur, le Monde, le Figaro, le Monde diplomatique issued in 2008-2016 as well as other online publications [13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18, 19].

We used quantitative method, the method of comparative analysis and component analysis for research and investigation.

Language is constantly evolving. The lexical structure of the language is very sensitive to different kinds of processes which occur in the world. Rapid development of information and communication technologies affects the lexical structure of the language directly, which is reflected in the press. The press captures the first  neologisms, even before they enter dictionaries.

Dictionaries are a means to explore the world outloook of the people who speak this language. Man perceives the world through the prism of national culture and language [4, p.13]. The study of dictionaries gives the opportunity to see the language picture of the world of a particular nation.

Linguistic picture of the world is one of the basic concepts of cultural and cognitive linguistics, which is the subject of study of many modern linguists [4, 10, 11].

Linguistic picture of the world is reflected in the vocabulary of the language which conveys the perception of reality by the people who speak this language.

The study of dictionaries enables us to see which areas of art, culture and science have gone through dynamic development. [8, p.5] "Dictionaries are responding to changes in life and society, they reflect dynamic linguistic processes in the form of a static picture"

Word is subject to change. Linguistic signs have an inherent mobility in the content and scope of the concept. The semantics of the word can change over time. The perception of the word can vary through the ages, and sometimes more rapidly, through decades, that is what makes the boundary of lexical sign semantics mobile.

The analysis of word-formation processes has always been the focus of scientific research [1; 2; 3; 5; 6; 7; 9]. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that new words continuously enter the vocabulary of the language.

The last decade has witnessed a new surge in the development of modern technology, which has been instantly reflected in the vocabulary of the language. There are a lot of words that reflect different innovation processes, in particular rapid development of information and communication technologies.

The study of specific ways of word formation on the basis of authentic materials of modern press allows us to understand the extent of how active a certain word formation method is at the moment.

Prefixation is one of the productive ways of word formation in the modern French language. Prefix, which is an invariant derivation component prior to the root, can change the meaning of a derivative word or render a certain new nuance of its meaning. Neologism formed through prefixation contribute to the list of words in the language. Motivation of the word is detremined by deductability of its components meaning.

Prefix e-  is a derivation component borrowed from English, an abbreviation of the word "electronic" (électronique in French) which means electronic or online. The first borrowings from English that appeared in the French language were such words as e-mail, emailing, e-learning, e-marketing, e-business, e-teaching, then the derivation component e- began to be used for the formation of new French words, for example, e -commerçant, e-santé, e-dépendance, e-publicité, e-compétence etc.

The study has revealed a number of other words with prefix e-:

– e-catalogue– e-publicité

– e-cigarette– e-revue

– e-commerçant– e-franc

– e-ticket– e-billet

– e-tourisme– e-livre

– e-commerce– e-compétence

– e-formation– e-mobilité

– e-carte– e-dictionnaire

– e-santé– e-nouvelles

– e-dépendance– e-réputation

– e-banque– e-assurance

– e-achats– e-carnet

– e-boutique– e-bibliothèque

–e-magasin–e-liquide

–e-monnaie–e-librairie

–e-agriculture–e-distribution

–e-évaluation–e-marketing

–e-stratégie–e-communication

–emailing–e-conciergerie

Most of the given words are actively used in the press and online publications, but not yet recorded by dictionaries. It should be noted that the process of their integration into dictionaries has already started, thus the word e-publicité dates back to the year 2011, e-livre — 2012, e-cigarette — 2015.

Here are some more examples of words with prefix e-:

–  Le e-catalogue est la version web de votre offre produits. En d’autres mots, c’est l’ensemble de votre arborescence produits au sein de votre site web (site vitrine). Il reprend l’ensemble de votre catalogue papier [18];

–  Avec l'émergence des réseaux sociaux, soigner sa e-réputation sur le Web est devenu vital pour les marques [19];

–  Le terme e-learning est utilisé en France pour désigner l’utilisation d’Internet dans le cadre d’une formation [17];

Quand le e-teaching le dispute au e-learning ne devrait-on pas utiliser le terme de e-teaching, symétriquement à celui de e-learning? [15]

– Ces évolutions envisagées par certaines enseignes projettent la question du e-commerce dans des réflexions plus larges, relatives à la place et aux formes possibles pour le devenir du commerce en ville [14];

– Toujours à la recherche de nouvelles sources de revenus, l'e-distribution manager effectue un travail de veille pour identifier de nouveaux canaux de distribution, le positionnement de la concurrence et évaluer leur potentiel pour sa marque [16];

– Quand vous achetez un e-billet, les détails de votre voyage — train, nom, date de naissance, etc. — sont enregistrés dans le système de réservation de la SNCF [13];

– Plusieurs projets sont prévus en matière de gouvernance électronique, d’e-santé, d’e-agriculture … [12];

– Le concept d'e-formation sous-entend une diversité de notions, imbriquées les unes dans les autres, combinables entre elles [15].

Thus, it is characteristic of the modern French language to enrich its lexical structure through prefixed neologisms. The undertaken research proves that lexical units formed with the help of prefix e- are actively used in authentic press and online publications. The analysis enables the establishment of the typological characterization of these prefixed neologisms. The majority of neologisms discovered during the research which (formed through prefix e-) are nouns.

The results obtained in the study revealed new highly productive derivational elements in the modern French language and we concluded that prefixation remains one of the most common ways of word formation in the French language.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Bertrand O. Histoire du vocabulaire français. Origines, emprunts et création lexicale. Paris, École Polytechnique, 2011, 230p.
  2. Fridrichová R. Histoire du vocabulaire français, X Linguae, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2014, p. 85-87.
  3. Балабас Н.Н. К вопросу о префиксальном способе словообразования в современном французском языке (на материале аутентичной прессы и словарных дефиниций толковых словарей)/ Н.Н. Балабас//Гуманитарные, социально-экономические и общественные науки. – 2015. – № 9. – С. 300-303.
  4. Балабас Н.Н. Концепты « amitié » (дружба) и « hostilité » (вражда) во французском языке: дис. … канд. фил.наук: 10.02.05/Н.Н. Балабас. – 2010. 153с.
  5. Балабас Н.Н. Некоторые особенности префиксального словообразования современного французского языка/Н.Н. Балабас// Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики. – 2015. – № 12 (54). Ч.1. – С. 35-37.
  6. Балабас Н.Н.Тенденции развития словарного состава французского языка (на материале современной французской прессы)/ Н.Н. Балабас// В мире научных открытий. – 2015. – № 7.5 (67). – С. 2125-2136.
  7. Гак В.Г. Сравнительная типология французского и русского языков/В.Г. Гак. – М.: Просвещение, 1989. – 288с.
  8. Козырев В.А. Современные ориентации отечественной лексикографии/В.А. Козырев, В.Д. Черняк// Вопросы лексикографии. –2014. – № 1. – С. 5-15.
  9. Лопатникова, Н.Н. Лексикология современного французского языка/Н.Н. Лопатникова – М.: Высшая школа, 2006. – 334с.
  10. Николаева М.Н. Картина мира представителей современной англоязычной молодежной субкультуры через призму языка/ М.Н. Николаева// Общество – язык – культура: актуальные проблемы взаимодействия в XXI веке. Сборник трудов Первой международной научно-практической конференции. – М.: МИЛ, 2006. – С.49–51.
  11. Попова З.Д.Очерки по когнитивной лингвистике/З.Д. Попова, И.А.Стернин. – Воронеж, Истоки, 2002. – 191с.
  12. LePoint. 2014. № 2186.
  13. Le e-billet. C’est quoi ? Comment ça marche ? // [Electronic resource] URL: https://blog.captaintrain.com/204-le-e-billet-c-est-quoi-comment-ca-marche (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  14. E-commerce et territoires : nouvelles pratiques de l’espace, nouveaux enjeux d’aménagement // [Electronic resource] URL: http://calanda.org/322118 (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  15. E-formation, e-learning // [Electronic resource] URL: http://eduscol.education.fr/numerique/dossier/archives/eformation/e-formation-e-learning (Accessed 09.05.2016).
  16. L’e-distribution manager, un négociateur online // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.lechotouristique.com/article/l-e-distribution-manager-un-negociateur-online,72644 (Accessed 22.02.2016)
  17. Fenouillet F., Déro M. Le « e-learning » est-il efficace ? Une analyse de la littérature anglo-saxonne // [Electronic resource] URL: http://moise.dero.free.fr/cv/IMG/pdf/FENOUILLET_DERO_v_longue.pdf (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  18. Réussir son e-catalogue : Mode d’emploi // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.nextpage.fr/fr/reussir-son-e-catalogue-mode-demploi/ (Accessed 24.02.2016).
  19. E-réputation, ou comment garder une bonne image sur Internet // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.journaldunet.com/ebusiness/marques-sites/e-reputation// (Accessed 24.02.2016).

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Bertrand O. Histoire du vocabulaire français. Origines, emprunts et création lexicale. Paris, École Polytechnique, 2011, 230p.
  2. Fridrichová R. Histoire du vocabulaire français, X Linguae, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2014, p. 85-87.
  3. Balabas N.N. K voprosu o prefiksal’nom sposobe slovoobrazovanija v sovremennom francuzskom jazyke (na materiale autentichnoj pressy i slovarnyh definicij tolkovyh slovarej) [To a question of prefixal method of word-formation in modern French (on the material of the authentic press and lexicographic definitions of explanatory dictionaries)]. / N.N. Balabas // Gumanitarnye, social’no-jekonomicheskie i obshhestvennye nauki [Humanitarian, socioeconomic and social sciences]. – 2015. – № 9. – P. 300-303. [in Russian]
  4. Balabas, N.N. Koncepty « amitié » (druzhba) i « hostilité » (vrazhda) vo francuzskom jazyke [Concepts of "amitié" (friendship) and "hostilité" (hostility) in French]: Thesis for the degree of PhD in Philology: 10.02.05 / N.N. Balabas. – 2010. 153 p. [in Russian]
  5. Balabas, N.N. Nekotorye osobennosti prefiksal’nogo slovoobrazovanija sovremennogo francuzskogo jazyka [Some features of prefixal word-formation of modern French]. / N.N. Balabas // Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki [Philological sciences. Questions of the theory and practice]. – 2015. – № 12 (54). Part 1. – P. 35-37. [in Russian]
  6. Balabas N.N.Tendencii razvitija slovarnogo sostava francuzskogo jazyka (na materiale sovremennoj francuzskoj pressy) [Tendencies of development of lexical structure of French (on material of the modern French press)]. / N.N. Balabas // V mire nauchnyh otkrytij [In the world of scientific discoveries]. – 2015. – № 7.5 (67). – P. 2125-2136. [in Russian]
  7. Gak V.G. Sravnitel’naja tipologija francuzskogo i russkogo jazykov [Comparative typology of the French and Russian]. / V.G. Gak. – M.: Prosveshhenie, 1989. – 288 p. [in Russian]
  8. Kozyrev V.A. Sovremennye orientacii otechestvennoj leksikografii [The modern orientations of domestic lexicography]. / V.A. Kozyrev, V.D. Chernjak // Voprosy leksikografii [Lexicography questions]. – 2014. – № 1. – P. 5-15. [in Russian]
  9. Lopatnikova, N.N. Leksikologija sovremennogo francuzskogo jazyka [Lexicology of modern French]. / N.N. Lopatnikova – M.: Vysshaja shkola, 2006. – 334 p. [in Russian]
  10. Nikolaeva, M.N. Kartina mira predstavitelej sovremennoj anglojazychnoj molodezhnoj subkul’tury cherez prizmu jazyka [The worldview of representatives of modern English-speaking youth subculture through the language prism]. / M.N. Nikolaeva // Obshhestvo – jazyk – kul’tura: aktual’nye problemy vzaimodejstvija v XXI veke. Sbornik trudov Pervoj mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Society – language – culture: actual problems of interaction in the 21st century. Collection of works of the First international scientific and practical conference.]. – M.: MIL, 2006. – P. 49–51. [in Russian]
  11. Popova, Z.D. Ocherki po kognitivnoj lingvistike [Sketches on cognitive linguistics]. / Z.D. Popova, I.A.Sternin. – Voronezh, Istoki, 2002. – 191 p. [in Russian]
  12. LePoint. 2014. № 2186.
  13. Le e-billet. C’est quoi ? Comment ça marche ? // [Electronic resource] URL: https://blog.captaintrain.com/204-le-e-billet-c-est-quoi-comment-ca-marche (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  14. E-commerce et territoires : nouvelles pratiques de l’espace, nouveaux enjeux d’aménagement // [Electronic resource] URL: http://calanda.org/322118 (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  15. E-formation, e-learning // [Electronic resource] URL: http://eduscol.education.fr/numerique/dossier/archives/eformation/e-formation-e-learning (Accessed 09.05.2016).
  16. L’e-distribution manager, un négociateur online // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.lechotouristique.com/article/l-e-distribution-manager-un-negociateur-online,72644 (Accessed 22.02.2016)
  17. Fenouillet F., Déro M. Le « e-learning » est-il efficace ? Une analyse de la littérature anglo-saxonne // [Electronic resource] URL: http://moise.dero.free.fr/cv/IMG/pdf/FENOUILLET_DERO_v_longue.pdf (Accessed 22.02.2016).
  18. Réussir son e-catalogue : Mode d’emploi // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.nextpage.fr/fr/reussir-son-e-catalogue-mode-demploi/ (Accessed 24.02.2016).
  19. E-réputation, ou comment garder une bonne image sur Internet // [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.journaldunet.com/ebusiness/marques-sites/e-reputation// (Accessed 24.02.2016).

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