Art#: 4237
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.20.4.4

Цитировать

Электронная ссылка | Печатная ссылка

Скопируйте отформатированную библиографическую ссылку через буфер обмена или перейдите по одной из ссылок для импорта в Менеджер библиографий.
Pllana S. ANTONYM WORDS WITH PREFIXES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE / S. Pllana, P.A. Breznica, F. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 4 (20). — С. 27—32. — URL: http://rulb.org/ru/article/%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%82%d0%be%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%bc%d0%bd%d1%8b%d0%b5-%d1%81%d0%bb%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%b0-%d1%81-%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d0%b2%d0%ba%d0%b0%d0%bc%d0%b8-%d0%b2-%d1%8d%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%bd/ (дата обращения: 26.10.2020. ). doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.20.4.4
Pllana S. ANTONYM WORDS WITH PREFIXES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE / S. Pllana, P.A. Breznica, F. Pllana // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2019. — № 4 (20). — С. 27—32. doi:doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2019.20.4.4

Импортировать


Плана С.1, Брезница П.А.2, Плана Ф.3
1Доктор филологических наук, Приштинский университет «Хасан Приштина» Экономический факультет, Косово; 2Магистр, Университет "Укшин Хоти" Призрен, Кафедра албанского языка и литературы, Косово; 3Магистрант, Юго-восточный Европейский Университет, Республика Северная Македония, Тетово
АНТОНИМНЫЕ СЛОВА С ПРИСТАВКАМИ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ НА АЛБАНСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Аннотация
Антонимия, как и синонимия, представляет собой своего рода парадигматического соединения слов. Антонимия как теоретическая проблема лексикологии тесно связана с практическими потребностями её правильного применения в лексикографической работе. Слова, противоположные по значению, представляют собой аспект лексической микросистемы с условными связями чётко выраженных элементов. В данной работе будут проанализированы подробно слова антонимы с приставками в экономической терминологии в албанском языке; Мы будем делать структурный и семантический анализ антонимов с приставками, ориентируясь больше на их анализ структуры, связанной с типом или степенью противоположности или особенностьями семантической оппозиции этих слов антонимов, со структурной и семантической связью, которая существует между основой слова с приставкой и без приставки, также и с антонимической функцией приставок. Это возможно на основе тесных связей, которое это явление, также как и синонимия, имеет с многозначностью. Одно и то же слово в разных значениях одновременно входит в различные синонимические и антонимические связи и, таким образом, входит в состав различных групп терминологической системы. Большинство примеров, на которые мы опираемся, которые раскрывают особенности анонимности в терминологии экономики на албанском языке, были взяты из одноязычных и двуязычных словарей и университетских учебников, опубликованных в области экономики.
Ключевые слова: антонимные слова, антонимы с приставками, экономическая терминология.
Страницы: 27 - 32

Pllana S.1, Breznica P.A.2, Pllana F.3
1PhD in Philology, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina” Faculty of Economics Republic of Kosova; 2Master, University of Prizren “Ukshin Hoti”, Faculty of Philology, Department of Albanian Language, Republic of Kosova; 3Ma. student, South East European University
ANTONYM WORDS WITH PREFIXES IN THE TERMINOLOGY OF ECONOMY IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE
Abstract
Antonyms, like synonyms, consitutes a kind of paradigmatic conjunction of words. Antonymy, as a theoretical problem of lexicology, is closely related to the practical needs of its proper implementation in lexicographic work. Words, in contrast to meaning, in themselves represent an aspect of lexical microsystem with conditional connections of explicitly expressed elements. In this paper we will analyze in detail the antonym words with prefixes in the terminology of Economy in the Albanian language. We will make a structural and semantic analysis of antonyms with prefixes, focusing more on their analysis by the structure, which relates to the type or degree of the contradiction or the semantic contradictory features of these antonym words, with the structural and semantic relation that exists between the subject of the word with a prefix and that without a prefix, and with the antonymic function of the prefixes. This is made possible on the basis of the close link that this phenomenon, like the synonymy, has with ambiguity. The same word, in different meanings, simultaneously enters into different synonymic and antonymic conjunctions and thus enters the composition of different groups of the terminological system. The bulk of the examples we rely on, which reveal the features of antonymy in the terminology of Economy in the Albanian language have been extracted from monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, as well as from published university textbooks from the field of economics.
Keywords: antonym words, antonyms with prefixes, terminology of Economy.
Pages: 27 - 32
Почта авторов / Author Email: sadete.pllana[at]uni-pr.edu, aalbulena.p[at]gmail.com, fisnike_p[at]hotmail.com

Introduction

Antonyms as a particular linguistic phenomenon present in itself a range of problems of great lexicological and lexicographic interest. In Albanian language linguistics, as well as in particular national languages, a study of Albanian antonyms has been conducted, beginning in the second half of the 20th century [27, P.57-63].

Antonyms are defined as "words with the opposite meaning", but this definition is not sufficient, so there is a need for a broader definition so as to distinguish which words have the opposite meaning. According to Paradis [13, P.31] “antonyms are two or more words of the same language belonging to the same part of speech and to the same semantic field, identical in style and nearly identical in spreading, which are often associated or used together so that their denotative meanings render contrary or contradictory notions”. The problem with the definition also lies in the fact that it is difficult to describe what is easily illustrated by examples, as such it is difficult to find a definition that applies to any example of antonyms. It is more than obvious that the early studies of antonyms are seen in the light of the principles and logical conclusions, very superficial linguistically. In the Albanian language, studies in this field have begun and are ongoing, facilitated and enabled by comparative inter-lingual studies. Scholars in this field have re-expressed themselves on a variety of issues, correcting and reassessing some of the key features of antonyms in light of linguistic development and under the influence of other language studies. Albanian scholars regarding the antonyms of the Albanian language are: J. Thomai, M. Samara, I. Goçi, etc. J. Thomai [27, P.61] rightly points out: “As long as there are contradictions in nature, there will always be antonyms in language as well”.

M. Samara [23, P.144] gives this definition: “Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning, which first assert themselves, then deny the opposite word”. Similarly I. Goçi [6, P.12], gives this definition: “Antonyms are pairs of words and opposing meanings between them, which, by complementing one another's meaning, through this contradiction, they first assert themselves, then deny one another”. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics [1, P.18], defines antonym: “Antonym in its broadest sense collectively reflects all sorts of semantic contradiction”. According to Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics, [14, P.14], antonym is defined as “a word which is opposite in meaning to another word”.   

Antonyms are used in various lectures and styles of the standard Albanian language. Antonyms are the most appropriate linguistic means by which one expresses the opposite character of things, processes and phenomena intricate in nature and in society.  In the pair i mirë — i keq (good – bad), antonymic links are expressed between two opposing assertions [5, P.13]. 

In Albanian language, by construction, antonyms are of two kinds:

  1. Completely different antonyms of words that have no common source or origin about word formation (which are real antonyms), as: i ashpër — i butë (tough – soft), i trashë — i hollë (thick – thin), marr — jap (take – give), jashtë — brenda (outside – inside), etc.
  2. Antonyms formed with prefixed with the opposite meaning, as: lodhem — çlodhem (get tired – relaxed), organizoj — çorganizoj (organize – disorganize), qetëso — shqetësoj (calm down – bother), kamje — skamje (wealth- poverty), besim — mosbesim (faith–unbelief), marrëveshje — mosmarrëveshje (agreement-disagreement), barazi — pabarazi (equality – inequality), zyrtar — jozyrtar (official – unofficial) etc.

Pairs of antonyms are mostly created with words that indicate quality (adjectives and adverbs), time, size, age, features of character and action, such as: dritë — errësirë (light – darkness), i madh — i vogël(big – small), plak — i ri (old man – young), mirë — keq(good – bad), shpejt — ngadalë(quickly – slowly), etc.

Antonyms from a structural point of view

A very important role in countering the meanings of these words plays the prefix. Below we present some antonyms, which will be analyzed from a structural point of view, like: dëmtim — zhdëmtim (damage- compensation), dëmtoj — zhdëmtoj (harm – indemnify), organizim — mosorganizimi (organization – disorganization), zbatim — moszbatim (implementation – non- implementation), kënaqësi — moskënaqësi(satisfaction – dissatisfaction), makroaorganizim —mikroaorganizim(macro-organization — micro-organization), makrosistem— mikrosistem (macro-system – micro-system), makrolimë — mikroklimë (macroclimate – microclimate), kamje —  skamje(wealth- poverty), bujqësor — jobujqësor(agricultural — non – agricultural), ligjor —  kundërligjor (legal – illegal), etc. These antonyms have a common theme, which in some cases coincides with the root of the word. In some of these pairs, one of the elements is a derivative word with prefix and the other without a prefix; in some pairs both elements are words with prefix. Based on the prefix for the formation of antonyms words, antonyms pairs can be divided into two groups:

  1. Antonym pairs that have one word with a prefix and the other without prefix:
  • anti- shkencor —  antishkencor (scientific – unscientific), trust —  antitrust (trust-antitrust), kushtetues — antikushtetues (constitutional-anti constitutional) etc.
  • çedukim — çedukim (education-illiteracy), mpreh —  çmpreh (sharpen – unsharpened), regjistrim — çregjistrim (registration — deregistration), rregullim — çrregullim (repair-disruption, etc.
  • de- centralizim — decentralizim (centralization-decentralization), nacionalizim — denacionalizim (nationalization-denationalization), fuzion — defuzion (ffusion-diffusion), detyrim —zhdetyrim(obligation-release), etc.
  • dis (dez)- harmonizim — disharmonizim (harmonize – disharmonize), etc.
  • joekonomik — joekonomik (economic-non-economic), formal-joformal (formal-nonformal), ekuilibër — joekuilibër (equilibrium-disequilibrium), klient —joklient (costumer-non-costumer), kompetent — jokompetent (competent-incompetent), miqësor — jomiqësor (friendly-unfriendly), objektiv — joobjektiv (objective-non-objective), prodhues — joprodhues (productive -non-productive), rentabël — jorentabël (profitable-unprofitable), zyrtar — jozyrtar (official-unofficial) etc. Antonym words formed with this prefix may express the opposite or lack of what the main words denote without this prefix, but generally deny the meaning of the word without prefix.
  • kundër- forcë — kundërforc/ë-a (force – counter-force), goditje-a — kundërgoditje (strike-counterstrike), kërkesë — kundërkërkesë (claim-counterclaim), ofertë — kunërofertë (offer — counter-offer), padi — kundërpadi (charge -counter charge), propozim — kundërpropozim,-I (proposal — counter proposal), veprim,-i — kundërveprimi (reaction — counteraction), vlerë — kundërvlerë (value -counter value) etc.
  • mos- besim — mosbesim (faith–unbelief), mirënjohje—mosmirënjohje (gratitude-ingratitude), mirënjohës—mosmirënjohës (grateful-ungrateful), ekzekutim — mosekzekutim (execution — non execution), zbatim — moszbatim (implementation — non-implementation), njohje — mosmirënjohje (recognition–ungratefulness), pagim — mospagim (payment — non-payment), pëlqim — mospëlqim (consent – denial), pajtim — mospajtim (agreement-disagreement), përmbushje — mospërmbushje (fulfillment-default), pranim — mospranim (acceptance-non-acceptance) etc. These antonyms words formed with this prefix "are inconsistent with today's literary norm of the Albanian language [25. P.115]; are action names and retain the meaning of the corresponding verbs.
  • pa- aftësi — paaftësi (ability – disability), anësi — paanësi (partiality – impartiality), anshmëri — paanshmëri (bias – unbiased), etc.
  • shpërbërje — shpërbërje (composition — dissolution), pyllëzim — shpyllëzim (forestation-deforestation), pronësim — shpronësim (ownership — expropriation) etc.
  • shpërndarje — shpërndarje (division- distribution), ngulem — shpërngulem (establish-migrate), përqëndrohem—shpërqëndrohem (concentrate – distracted), etc.
  • zhdëmtim — zhdëmtim (damage–indemnity), doganim— zhdoganim (customs -payment of custom duties), vendosje — zhvendosje (placement-dislocate), vleftësim — zhvleftësim (validation-devaluation), vlerësim — zhvlerësim (valuation -depreciation) et.

Antonyms words with prefixes: jo-, mos-, pa-, are relatively new.

Antonym words with prefix pa- are with negative meanings, which indicate a lack of quality; form antonyms words that mainly are nouns and adjectives.

  1. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix jo-: blerës,i — joblerës,-i(buyer — non-buyer); bujqësi,-a — jobujqësi,-a(agriculture — non-agriculture); ekonomi,-a — joekonomi,-a (economy — non-economy); kompetenc/ë,-a — jokompetnc/ë-a(competence – incompetence); likuiditet,-i — jolikiditet,-i(liquidity – illiquidity); rentabilitet,-i — jorentabilitet,-i(profitability — non-profitability); vler/ë,-a — jovler/ë,-a(value — non-value), etc.
  2. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix mos-  usually indicate lack of implementation of process, action or lack of action results, like: arrijtje — mosarrijtje (achievement – failure), barazim — mosbarazim(reconciliation — non-reconciliation), besim — mosbesim(faith – unbelief), dorëzim — mosdorëzim(delivery — non-delivery), interesim —  mosinteresim(interest – disinterest), intervenim — mosintervenim (intervention-non-intervention), kthim — moskthim(return — non-return), kundërshtim — moskundërshtim(opposition — non-opposition), kuptim — moskuptim(understanding – misunderstanding),  lejim —  moslejim(allowing – inhibition), livrim — moslivrim (delivery-non-delivery), marrëveshje — mosmarrëveshje (accordance-dispute), miratim — mosmiratim(approval – disapproval), mirëmbajtje — mosmirëmbajtje (maintenance — non-maintenance),  ndërhyrje — mosndërhyrje (interference-non-interference), njohje — mosnjohje(recognition — non-recognition), organizim —  mosorganizim(organization – disorganization), pagesë —mospagesë(payment-non-payment), pagim — mospagim (payment-non-payment), pajtim — mospajtim (agreement-disagreement), paraqitje — mosparaqitje(appearance — non-appearance), parashikim — mosparashikim(prediction – non-prediction), pasqyrim — mospasqyrim(reflection — non-reflection), pëlqim — mospëlqim (approval-disapproval), përdorim —  mospërdorim(use-disuse), përfillje — mospërfillje (consideration-non-consideration), përkujdesje — mospërkujdesje (vigilance-negligence), përmbajtje — mospërmbajtje(continence-incontinence), përputhje — mospërputhje(compliance – inconsistency), përshtatje — mospërshtatje(adaptation — non-adaptation), përzierje — mospërzierje(interference-noninterference), pjesëmarrje — mospjesëmarrje(participation-boycott), plotësim — mosplotësim(fulfillment- non-fulfilment), pranim —  mospranim(acceptance – rejection), realizim — mosrealizim, ) realization — non-realization), respektim — mosrespektim(respect – disrespect), sigurim — mossigurim(insurance -non-insurance),   sukses — mossukses(success – failure), tejkalim — mostejkalim(excess — non-excess), veprim — mosveprim(action – inaction), zbatim — moszbatim (performance -non-performance) etc.
  3. Antonym words nouns formed with the prefix pa-aftësi — paaftësi (ability-disability), drejtësi — padrejtësi (justice-injustice), qartësi — paqartësi (clarity – ambiguity), ligjshmëri — paligjshmëri(legality – illegality), rrezikshmëri — parrezikshmëri(risk – safety), saktësi — pasaktësi(accuracy – inaccuracy), pasuri — papasuri(wealth-poverty), rregullsi — parregullsi (regularity – irregularities), mjaftueshmëri — pamjaftueshmëri (sufficiency-insufficiency), punësi — papunësi (employment-unemployment), siguri — pasiguri (certainly-uncertainly) etc.
  4. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix jo: afarist,-e — joafarist,-e (businessperson — non-businessperson); detyrues,-e — jodetyrues,-e(binding — non-binding); ekonomik,-e — joekonomik,-e(economical – uneconomical); kompetent,-e — jokompetent,-e(competent – incompetent); produktiv,-e — joproduktiv,-e(productive – unproductive); prodhimtar,-e — joprodhimtar-e(productive, -e – unproductive); racional,-e — joracional-e(rational – irrational); rentabil,-e — jorentabil,-e(profitable — non-profitable); zyrtar,-e — jozyrtar,-e (official – unofficial) etc.  
  5. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix mos- usually formed by few adjectives derived from a verb stem having no attributive article: miratues — mosmiratues(approving – disapproving), mirëdashës — mosmirëdashës(kind-unkind), përfillës — mospërfillës (respectful-indifferent), mirënjohës — mosmirënjohës(grateful – ungrateful) etc.
  6. Antonym words adjectives formed with the prefix pa- n-in the pairs: i amortizuar  — i paamortizuar (amortized-unamortized), i arkëtuar — i paarkëtuar(collected – uncollected), i arsimuar — i paarsimuar(educated – uneducated), i arsyeshëm  — i paarsyeshëm (reasonable-reasonless), i banuar — i pabanuar (inhabited-uninhabited), i baraspeshuar — i pabaraspeshuar(balanced – unbalanced), i barazueshëm — i pabarazueshëm(equal – unequal), i bashkuar — i pabashkuar(united-disunited), i besueshëm — i pabesueshëm(reliable – unreliable), i bindshëm — i pabindshëm(obedient-disobedient), i caktuar — i pacaktuar (definite-indefinite),i cenuar — i pacenuar(vulnerable-invulnerable), i cilësuar — i pacilësuar(qualified – unqualified), i çmueshëm — i paçmueshëm(precious – invaluable), i dallueshëm — i padallueshëm(distinguishable – indistinguishable), i deklaruar — i padeklaruar(declared – undeclared), i dëmtuar — i padëmtuar(damaged – undamaged), i disciplinuar  — i padisciplinuar(disciplined-undisciplined), i diskutueshëm — i  padiskutueshëm(disputable-indisputable), i dobishëm — i  padobishëm(useful – useless), i doganuar — i padoganuar(customs cleared- customs not cleared), i doganueshëm — i padoganueshëm (dutiable-non-dutiable), i emërtuar — i  paemërtuar(named – unnamed), i kalueshëm — i pakalueshëm(passable – impassable), i këmbuyeshëm — i pakëmbyeshëm(changeable – unchangeable), i kualifikuar — i pakualifikuar(qualified – unqualified), i kufizuar — i pakufizuar(limited – unlimited), i kujdesshëm — i pakujdesshëm(caring – careless), i kushtëzuar — i pakushtëzuar (conditional-unconditional), i lajmëruar — i palajmëruar(announced- unannounced), i lejueshëm — i palejueshëm(acceptable-unacceptable), i lidhur — i palidhur(bounded-unbounded), i llogaritur — i  pallogaritur(calculated- uncalculated),i mborjtur — i pambrojtur(protected- unprotected), i mbuluar — i pambuluar(covered – uncovered), i miratuar — i pamiratuar(approved – unapproved), i ndërprerë — i pandërprerë(interrupted-uninterrupted), i nevojshëm — i panevojshëm(necessary – unnecessary), i organizuar — i paorganizuar(organized – unorganized), i paguar — i papaguar (paid-unpaid), i paketuar — i papaketuar (-packed-unpacked), i përballueshëm — i papërballueshëm(affordable – unaffordable), i përdorur — i papërdorur(used – unused), i përfunduar — i papërfunduar(finished – unfinished), i peshuar — i papeshuar(weighted – unweighted), i programuar — i paprogramuar(planned-unplanned),  i punuar — i papunuar(wrought – unwrought), i qëndrueshëm — i paqëndrueshëm (stable – unstable),   i rëndësisshëm — i parëndësishëm (considerable-negligible), i shpalluar — i pashpallur (declared-undeclared), i tatuar — i patatuar (taxed-untaxed), i vërtetuar — i pavërtetuar (confirmed-unconfirmed), i zhvilluar — i pazhvilluar(developed – undeveloped) etc.
  7. Antonym words verbs formed with the prefix ç-/ sh-: edukoj — çedukoj (educate- illiterate), mbledh — çmbledh(gather-ungather), mobilizoj — çmobilizoj (mobilize – demobilize), mat — çmat (measure- unmeasured), mbështjell — çmbështjell(wrap-unwrap), organizoj — çorganizoj (organize – disorganize), orientoj — çorientoj(orient-disorient), regjistroj — çregjistroj(enroll-unenrolled); rregulloj — çrregulloj(regulate-unregulated), paketoj — shpaketoj (pack-unpack), përqendroj — shpërqendroj(concentrate – distract), pyllëzoj — shpyllëzoj (forest – deforest), etc.
  1. In the second group of antonyms pairs belong antonyms with a prefix, one as the word form element of the first speech of the pair and the other as the word form element of the second speech of that pair. Antonym words, in the terminology of economics that in their composition have the Albanian prefixes: nën-e mbi, para– e prapa; pas, jashtë e brenda, sipër- e poshtë (under — over, on; front — behind, back; outside — inside; up — down)   
  1. nën e mbi: nënbilanc,-i — mbibilancë,-i (sub-balance – overbalance); nënçmoj — mbiçmoj(underestimate – overestimate); nënçmim,-i — mbiçmim,-i(underestimation – overestimation); nënkalim,-i — mbikalim,-i(underpass – overpass); nënkontroll,-i — mbikontroll,-i(sub-control — over-control); nënngarkes/ë,-a — mbingarkes/ë(unload-overload); nënpeshë,-a — mbipeshë,-a(underweight – overweight); nënprodhim,-i — mbiprodhim,-i (sub-production – overproduction); nënvlerësim,-i — mbivlerësim,-i(underestimation – overestimation); nëntokë — mbitokë(underground — above ground); nënujor,-e — mbiujor,-e (underwater — overwater ), etc.
  2. para e prapa, pas: paradhëni/e,-a — pasdhëni/e,-a (advance payment- after-payment); parabilanc — pasbilanc(pre-balances-after-balances); parashtesë — prapashtesë(prefix – suffix); paravendosje — pasvendosje (pre-deployment — post-deployment ), etc.
  3. jashtë e brenda: jashtëuniversitar —  brendauniversitar(extra-university — intra-university); jashtëgjuhësor — brendagjuhësor(extra-lingual — intra-lingual); i jashtëligjshëm — i brendaligjshëm(outlaw –legal), etc.
  4. sipëre poshtë:    i sipërshënuar — i poshtëshënuar (abovementioned – below-mentioned; i sipërtreguar — i poshtëtreguar (aforementioned-subsequent), etc.

Conclusion

Antonyms, not only are not foreign to the terminology of economics in Albanian language, but, on the contrary in this terminology antonyms become a tool for expressing the necessary and inevitable phenomena of science; therefore, both quantitatively and semantically, there are many antonyms added in this regard (usually naming state and quality).

Antonymic pairs in terminology seem more natural than in general language, they become more expressive of the phenomena necessary in the field of scientific knowledge by emphasizing the systemic character of terminology. Lexical meanings of antonymic pairs: doganim,-i —  zhdoganim (customs — payment of custom duties), ekonomik,-e — joekonomike (economic – uneconomic), makroaorganizim,-i  —  mikroaorganizim (macro-organization – micro-organization), makrosistem,-i — mikrosistem (macro-system – microsystem), mikrobot/ë-a — makrobotë (micro-robot — macro-robots), mikroorganiz/ëm,-mi — makroorganizim (microorganism – macro-organism), nënshtrim,-i — mosnënshtrim (obedience-nonobservance), constitute the most extreme edges in the range of opposing meanings; so we have complete antonymous relationships. Thus, antonyms serve as a complementary explanation when we want to give good explanations of words; adjective i madh (big) (in the dictionary) has its antonym i vogël (small). When words are opposites in the basic sense, then they are complete antonyms, their contradiction it does not depend very much from the context. Also, there are words that in the basic sense are not antonyms, but in certain cases they appear as antonyms.

In many cases, antonyms have completely opposite meanings, we have complete antonyms, like: vonë — herët (late – early), i rëndë — i lehtë (heavy – light), poshtë — lartë (down – up). In some adjectives and adverbs that indicate density, temperature, quality, etc., and in some formations with prefixes jo-, mos-, pa— the contradiction is not always complete, the word with prefix denies the meaning of the word without prefix, affirms the opposite state, but does not affirm the opposite action.

Список литературы / References:
  1. Crystal D. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics/ Crystal, D. / – Blackwell Publishing, Sixth Edition, Willey, 1985
  2. Cruse D. A. Lexical Semantics / Cruse, D. A. / – University of Manchester, 1986
  3. Duro A. Termi dhe fjala në gjuhën shqipe/ Duro, A. – QSA IGJL, Tiranë, 2009
  4. Dhrimo A. Fjalor drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe / Dhrimo, A.;Memushaj, R. / – INFBOTUES. Tiranë, 2011
  5. FJALOR I GJUHËS SHQIPE-FGJSH (1980), – Tiranë, 1980
  6. Goçi I. Antonimet e gjuhës së sotme shqipe/ Goçi, I. / – Instituti Albanologjik i Prishtinës, Prishtinë, 1985
  7. Gorani H. Disa çështje të formimit të termave ekonomike në gjuhën shqipe / Gorani, H. / – “Probleme aktuale të kulturës së gjuhës shqipe”, IA, Prishtinë, 1983
  8. Gorani H. Fjalor i termave dhe shprehjeve ekonomike:serbokroatisht-shqip / Gorani H. / – IA, Prishtinë, 1986
  9. Gorani H. Fjalor i kontabilitetit anglisht-shqip dhe shqip-anglisht / Gorani, H. / – Universiteti Universum, Prishtinë, 2008
  10. Kume V. Manaxhimi strategjik/ Kume, V. / –Tiranë, 2003
  11. Luboteni G. Menaxhmenti bankar/ Luboteni, G. / –Prishtinë, 2010.
  12. Llaci Sh. Qeverisja e korporatave / Llaci, Sh. / –Tiranë, 2014.
  13. Lloshi Xh. Mbi rezultatet kryesore në studimin e leksikut dhe të formimit të fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe pas Çlirimit/ Lloshi, Xh. / – “Studime mbi leksikun dhe formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe I”, – Tiranë, 1972
  14. Paradis C. Quantifying Aspects of Antonym Canonicity in English and Swedish: Textual and Experimental/Paradis, C.; Willners, C; Löhndorf, S; Murphy, M.L. / in Quantitative Investigations in Theoretical Linguistics 2, 2006
  15. Pasha H. Terminologjia e ekonomisë në gjuhën shqipe nga Rilindja deri në vitet ’80 të shek. XX / Pasha, H./ – ASHSH IGJL, Tiranë, 2005
  16. Pllana G. The Role of Antonyms in Theoretical Mechanics / Pllana, G.; Pllana, S. / – Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies MCSER Publishing, Vol 4 No 3 S1 December, Rome-Italy, 2015
  17. Pllana G. Formimi i terminologjive teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm/ Pllana, G. / – IGJL QSA, Tiranë, 2017
  18. Pllana S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze / Pllana, S. / – IGJL QSA, Tiranë, 2014
  19. Pllana S. Overview of Some Basic Terms of Economy in Albanian Language in the Approach with English Language/Pllana, S.; Pllana, G. / – Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies MCSER Publishing, Vol 4 No 3 S1 December 2015, Rome-Italy, 2015
  20. Rexha N. Fjalor i terminologjisë së biznesit anglisht –shqip dhe shqip-anglisht / Rexha, N. / – QKEMM, Prishtinë, 2001
  21. Richard W. Schmidt Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching &Applied Linguistics / Richard W. Schmidt & Jack C. / – Richards-Publisher: Routledge, 2010
  22. Sager J. A practical course in Terminology Processing / Sager, J. / – Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990
  23. Samara M. Mbi antonimet në togfjalësha dhe mbi antoniminë e togfjalëshave të qëndrueshëm në gjuhën shqipe/ Samara, M. / – “Studime mbi leksikun dhe mbi formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe I”, Tiranë, 1972
  24. Samara M. Fjalor i antonimeve në gjuhën shqipe/ Samara, M. / – Shkup, 1998
  25. Samara M. Çështje të antonimisë në gjuhën shqipe/ Samara, M. / – Tiranë, 1985
  26. Shehu H. English-Albanian Dictionary / Shehu, H. / – EDFA, Tiranë, 2016
  27. Thomai J. Leksikologjia e gjuhës shqipe / Thomai, J. / – BOTIMET TOENA, Tiranë, 2006.

Список литературы на английском / References in English:
  1. Crystal D. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics/ Crystal, D. / – Blackwell Publishing, Sixth Edition, Willey, 1985
  2. Cruse D. A. Lexical Semantics / Cruse, D. A. / – University of Manchester, 1986
  3. Duro A. Termi dhe fjala në gjuhën shqipe [The term and word in Albanian] / Duro, A. / – QSA IGJL, Tiranë, 2009 [in Albanian]
  4. Dhrimo A. Fjalor drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe [Spelling Dictionary of Albanian Language] / Dhrimo, A.;Memushaj, R. / – INFBOTUES. Tiranë, 2011 [in Albanian]
  5. FJALOR I GJUHËS SHQIPE [DICTIONARY OF ALBANIAN LANGUAGE] (1980), – Tiranë, 1980 [in Albanian]
  6. Goçi I. Antonimet e gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Antonyms of today’s Albanian language] / Goçi, I. / – Instituti Albanologjik i Prishtinës, Prishtinë, 1985 [in Albanian]
  7. Gorani H. Disa çështje të formimit të termave ekonomike në gjuhën shqipe [Some issues of forming economic terms in Albanian language]/Gorani, H. / – “Probleme aktuale të kulturës së gjuhës shqipe”, IA, Prishtinë, 1983 [in Albanian]
  8. Gorani H. Fjalor i termave dhe shprehjeve ekonomike:serbokroatisht-shqip [Dictionary of economic terms and expressions: Serbo-Croatian-Albanian] / Gorani, H. / – IA, Prishtinë, 1986. [in Albanian]
  9. Gorani H. Fjalor i kontabilitetit anglisht-shqip dhe shqip-anglisht [Accounting Dictionary English-Albanian and Albanian-English] / Gorani, H. / – Universiteti Universum, Prishtinë, 2008 [in Albanian]
  10. Kume V. Manaxhimi strategjik [Strategic Management] / Kume, V. / –Tiranë, 2003 [in Albanian]
  11. Luboteni G. Menaxhmenti bankar [Banking Management] / Luboteni, G. / – Prishtinë, 2010 [in Albanian]
  12. Llaci Sh. Qeverisja e korporatave [Corporate Governance] / Llaci, Sh. / – Tiranë, 2014 [in Albanian]
  13. Lloshi Xh. Mbi rezultatet kryesore në studimin e leksikut dhe të formimit të fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe pas Çlirimit [On the main results in the study of vocabulary and word formation in Albanian after Liberation]/ Lloshi, Xh. / – “Studime mbi leksikun dhe formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe I”, – Tiranë, 1972 [in Albanian]
  14. Paradis C. Quantifying Aspects of Antonym Canonicity in English and Swedish: Textual and Experimental/Paradis, C.; Willners, C; Löhndorf, S; Murphy, M.L. / in Quantitative Investigations in Theoretical Linguistics 2, 2006
  15. Pasha H. Terminologjia e ekonomisë në gjuhën shqipe nga Rilindja deri në vitet ’80 të shek. XX [Albanian Language Terminology of Economy from the Renaissance to the 80s of the XX century] / Pasha, H. / – ASHSH IGJL, Tiranë, 2005 [in Albanian]
  16. Pllana G. The Role of Antonyms in Theoretical Mechanics / Pllana, G.; Pllana, S. / – Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies MCSER Publishing, Vol 4 No 3 S1 December, Rome-Italy, 2015
  17. Pllana G. Formimi i terminologjive teknike shqipe mbi bazën e leksikut të përgjithshëm [ Formation of Albanian technical terminologies based on general vocabulary] / Pllana, G. / – IGJL QSA, – Tiranë, 2017 [in Albanian]
  18. Pllana S. Terminologjia bazë e mekanikës në gjuhët shqipe dhe angleze [Basic mechanics terminology in Albanian and English]/ Pllana, S. / – IGJL QSA, Tiranë, 2014 [in Albanian]
  19. Pllana S. Overview of Some Basic Terms of Economy in Albanian Language in the Approach with English Language/Pllana, S.; Pllana, G. / – Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies MCSER Publishing, Vol 4 No 3 S1 December 2015, Rome-Italy, 2015
  20. Rexha N. Fjalor i terminologjisë së biznesit anglisht –shqip dhe shqip-anglisht [Dictionary of business terminology English-Albanian and Albanian-English] / Rexha, N. / – QKEMM, Prishtinë, 2001 [in Albanian]
  21. Richard W. Schmidt Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching &Applied Linguistics / Richard W. Schmidt & Jack C. / – Richards-Publisher: Routledge, 2010
  22. Sager J. A practical course in Terminology Processing / Sager, J. / – Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990
  23. Samara M. Mbi antonimet në togfjalësha dhe mbi antoniminë e togfjalëshave të qëndrueshëm në gjuhën shqipe [On the antonyms of the word groups and on the antonyms of the stable word groups in the Albanian language]/ Samara, M. / – “Studime mbi leksikun dhe mbi formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe I”, Tiranë, 1972 [in Albanian]
  24. Samara M. Fjalor i antonimeve në gjuhën shqipe [Dictionary of Antonyms in Albanian] / Samara, M. / – Shkup, 1998 [in Albanian]
  25. Samara M. Çështje të antonimisë në gjuhën shqipe [Issues of anonymity in the Albanian language] / Samara, M. / – Tiranë, 1985 [in Albanian]
  26. Shehu H. English-Albanian Dictionary / Shehu, H. / – EDFA, Tiranë, 2016
  27. Thomai J. Leksikologjia e gjuhës shqipe [Albanian language Lexicology] / Thomai, J. / – BOTIMET TOENA, Tiranë, 2006 [in Albanian]

Лицензия Creative Commons - Creative Common Licence
Это произведение доступно по – This material is available under Creative Commons «Attribution» («Атрибуция») 4.0 Всемирная