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DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18454/RULB.8.18

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"THE PRINCIPLES OF NAMING OF POSEMYE HYDRONYMS". Russian Linguistic Bulletin №4 (8), (2016): 17. Wed. 23. Nov. 2016.
Malykhina T.M. , & Pisareva L.E. , & Larina L.I. , & Pravednikova T.V. , & (2016). Russian Linguistic Bulletin, №4 (8), 17-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.18454/RULB.8.18
Malykhina T.M. THE PRINCIPLES OF NAMING OF POSEMYE HYDRONYMS / T.M. Malykhina, L.E. Pisareva, L.I. Larina и др. // Russian Linguistic Bulletin. — 2016. — № 4 (8). — С. 17—20. doi:10.18454/RULB.8.18

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Малыхина Т.М.1, Писарева Л.Е.2, Ларина Л.И.3, Праведникова Т.В.4
1, 2, 3Кандидат филологических наук, 4Доцент, Курский государственный университет
ПРИНЦИПЫ НОМИНАЦИИ ГИДРОНИМОВ ПОСЕМЬЯ
Аннотация
Авторы статьи устанавливают некоторые закономерности в номинации гидронимов (рек и их основных притоков), формирующих ландшафт на территории Посемья, показывают тесную зависимость названий рек от природных условий: растительного мира, состояния водоема, качества воды и почвы в нем; особенностей течения.
Ключевые слова: топонимика, гидронимы, номинация, этимология, мотивационные признаки.
Страницы: 17 - 20

Malykhina T.M.1, Pisareva L.E.2, Larina L.I.3, Pravednikova T.V.4
1, 2, 3PhD in Philology, 4Associate Professor, Kursk State University
THE PRINCIPLES OF NAMING OF POSEMYE HYDRONYMS
Abstract
The authors of the article determine some principles of naming the hydronyms (rivers and their main tributaries), which form the landscape of Posemye. They show close dependence of the names of the rivers on their natural environment: flora, condition of a water body, the quality of water and soil in it, the peculiarities of the river flow.
Keywords: toponymy, hydronyms, naming, etymology, motivational characteristics.
Pages: 17 - 20
Почта авторов / Author Email: etnolingv@mail.ru, , ,

Toponymic research in the field of hydronymy is widely presented in Russian national linguistics [20]; [21]; [23]; [17]; [19]; [1]; [6]; [3].

However, from our point of view, a group of hydronyms which name rivers and their main tributaries, forming the landscape of Posemye, is not studied well enough. The importance of this article which continue the series of scientific publications on hydronymy of Posemye is determined by this fact [7, P. 115-117; [8, P. 317-326]; [9, P. 108-111]; [10, P. 122-123]; [11, P. 188-192]; [12, P. 81-86]; [13, P. 117].

In our research we rely on the facts given in “Hydronimic dictionary of Posemye” [23, P. 2].

In the article an attempt is made to distribute the hydronyms of Posemye into the groups which have the following motivational characteristics: 1) the condition of a water body, the quality of water and soil in it; 2) characteristic features of the river flow; 3) phytonimic characteristics.

The condition of a water body, the quality of its water and soil:

 Apochka – river (the right tributary of the Gerosima), it originates to the north of the village of Verchnije Apochky of Gorshechensky district, from opoka – ʻstone of green grey colourʼ. The river was named according to the characteristic features of the banks soil: opoky in their solid mass are on the Posemye territory. Bernovets – brook (the left tributary of the Tuskar), it originates to the east of the village of Zhernovets of Zolotukhinsky district, probably from ancient-Russian bjrnie, Bernie ʻclayʼ [18, P. 212]. Vzmut – brook (the right tributary of the Svapa), it originates near the village of Teplovka of Khomutovsky district, from vzmutit – ʻto make the water muddyʼ. Glinitsa – brook (the left tributary of the Apaka), it originates to the west of the village of Glinitsa of Lgovsky district, from glina (clay), according to the characteristic features of the water body soil. Gnilets – brook (the left tributary of the Polevaya Snova), it originates to the east of the village of Tsurikovo of Ponirovsky district, from gniloy – ʻmustyʼ, according to the quality of the water. Gryasnaya – river (the right tributary of the Kshen), it originates to the south-west of the village of Gryaznoye of Sovetsky district, from gryaz, gryazy – ʻswampy landʼ [5, P. 408]. Zabolot’– brook (the left tributary of the Polevaya Snova), it originates to the east of the village of  Zabolotovka of Ponirovsky district, from zabolot’– ʻswamped bottom of balkaʼ [14, P. 24]. Zorjka – brook (the left tributary of the Raspadnaya), it originates to the west of the village of Novaya Ivanovka of Sudzhansky district, probably, from zorkaya – ʻlight, clearʼ [14, P. 41]. Melovskoy – brook (the left tributary of the Seim), it originates on the south-west outskirts of Solntsevsky district, from melovoy, according to the characteristic features of the soil. Pesochnaya – river (the right tributary of the Svapa), it originates to the north of the village of Andreevka of Zheleznogorsky district, from pesok (sand), according to the characteristic features of the banks and the bottom of the river. Rzhava – river (the left tributary of the Seim), it originates near the farm yard of Rzhavchik of Pristensky district, from the adjective rzhavy or immediately from ancient-russian rzha [18, P. 203], according to the colour of the water, from swampy or river rust or red water. Svinchik – brook (the right tributary of the Seim), it originates to the north of the village of Svinets of Timsky district, probably from ancient-russian svinets ʻleadʼ [18, P. 273]; a metaphor, according to the colour of the water (dark), compare” leaden waves”. Slizen – brook (the right branch of the Seim), it originates near the village of Budky of Glushkovsky district, from dialectal slizky ʻcovered with gum, slimy slushʼ [5, P 202], according to the quality of the slow running water covered with gum of decaying water plants. Studenok – brook (the right branch of the Seim), it originates in the village of Studenok of Khomutovsky district, from ancient-russian studeny – ʻcoldʼ [18, P. 574]. Teplinka – brook (the right tributary of the Sukhaya Amonjka), it originates in the plot of land of Teplenjky, to the east of the village of Maleevka of Khomutovsky district, from dialectal teplina ʻa warm well, a hot springʼ [5, P. 399], according to the quality of water. Tuskar’ – river (the right tributary of the Seim), it originates to the south of the village of  Novo-Aleksandrovka of Schigrovsky district, from ancient-russian tusk – ʻdimʼ [22, P. 156]. The Tuskar’ flows through the territory which has thick black soil. In some places it has clayey and rocky soil. A lot of black soil gets into the river, thus making the water dark. Ublya – river (the left tributary of the Oskol), it originates to the north of the village of Somovka of Gorshechensky district, from Slavonic ubelъ, ublъ – ʻбелыйʼ. Probably, according to the colour of the water. Kholoditsa – river (the right tributary of the Malaya Ribinka), it originates to the west of the village of Kasinovo of Oboyansky district, from Russian kholod (cold), according to the characteristic features of the water. Chervyachok – brook (the left tributary of the Krutaya), it originates in Matveevsky gullet of Zolotukhinsky district, from chervyak, compare to ancient-russian chьrvь, cherv’ – ʻredʼ [18, P. 1557], according to the colour of the water. Shmarnaya – river (the left tributary of the Usozha), it originates to the south of the farm yard of Ivanovsky and the village of Shmarnoye of Fatezhsky district, from dialectal shmara – ʻmud on the water, duckweed, the colour of the water, plant Lemnaʼ [5, P. 640].

Characteristic features of the river flow:

Borsov Kolodez’ – brook(the right tributary of the Vorozhba), it originates in the gullet of  Borzov of Sudzhansky district, from ancient-russian borzy – ʻfastʼ [18. P. 199]. Bistrets – brook (the left tributary of the Oskol), it originates in the village of Bistretsy of Timsky district, from lexical item bistry. Krupets – brook (the right tributary of the Obista), it originates to the north of the village of Mikhailovka of Rylsky district, from krupets – ʻwell, source’ [16, P. 110]. Krupets, Krupka are usually given to short and rapid tributaries. These names can be found on the territory of Bryanskaya, Kaluzhskaya, Kurskaya, Tulskaya, Volinskaya, Mogilevskaya, Chernigovskaya regions. Mertvaya Kharaseya – river (the left tributary of the Kharaseya), it originates to the south-east of the village of Krasny Klin of Dmitrievsky district. In binominal hydronyms mertvaya -ʻslow running, standingʼ [5, P. 319] is used in contrast to zhivaya-‘quick running’ [14, P. 23]; compare to Zhivaya Kharaseyka. Nemeda – river (the left tributary of the Sev), it originates to the south-east of the village of Dobroye Pole of Khomutovsky district. Fasmer comes from ancient-russian Nemъd’ – ʻimmediateʼ [22, P. 211]. Panika brook (the left tributary of the Polnaya), it originates to the south of the village of Paniky of Medvensky district and falls on the territory of the same district, from ancient-russian niknuti ʻgo outʼ, denominative panikovets or ponikovets – ʻbrook, whose flow is exhausted and becomes swampy in some placesʼ [16, P. 180]. Sterzhen’ – brook (the right tributary of the Podmostishchya), it originates to the north-east of the village of  Olkhovka of Khomutovsky district, from sterzhen’ ʻsmall but quick riverʼ. Stremlya – brook (the left tributary of the Seim), it originates in the plot of land of Goloplakovschhina of Glushkovsky district, from kurskaya-orlovskaya stremya – ʻcreek, shootʼ [5, P. 337]. Struga – brook (the right  tributary of the Malaya  Locknya), it originates in the farm land of  Ivashkovsky of Sudzhansky district, from struga – ʻwater sourceʼ, compare to ancient-russian struga – ʻcurrent, flowʼ [18, P. 558]. Strigosla – river (the right tributary of the Psel), it originates in the village of Krivitskye Budy of Belovsky district, from appellative str- and gosla, the root str– can be found in numerous Slavonic names with the meaning of ʻquick, rapidʼ. Shum – brook (the right tributary of the Amonjka), it originates to the north of the village of Prikhodkovo of Khomutovsky district, from shum – ʻheavy flow, caused by sudden turns of the riverʼ.

Phytonimic characteristics:

Babka – brook (the left tributary of  the Vandarets), it originates to the north-east of the village of Chernicheno of  Konishevsky district, from Kursk dialectal babka – ʻthe name of the plant Nuphar luteumʼ, which grows in  standing and slow running waters [4, P. 414]. Vasilyok – brook (the left tributary of the Amonjka), it originates to the north of the village of Zhedenovka of Khomutovsky district, probably, a metaphor from vasiilyok – ʻa swampy plant Svertia obtusaʼ [5, P. 167]. Vereslinka – brook (the right tributary of the Vetka), it originates to the north of the village of Selina of Dmitrievsky district, from veres ʻthe plant Juniperus communisʼ [2, P. 51]. Vshivka –  brook (the left tributary of the Olim), it originates from the swamp near the village of Razdolje of Kastorensky district, from vshivitsa ʻ the plant Padicularisʼ [5, P. 254]. Zhiten’ – brook (the left tributary of the Reut), it originates to the south -west of the village of Zhiten’ of Sudzhansky district,from zhita – ʻa cereal plant Secale cereal or Friticumʼ, according to the plant. Wild grain, sandy rye can be found in sands of Kursk region [15, P. 97]. Ivitsa – brook (the left tributary of the Seim), it originates in the plot of land of Balikino of Solntsevsky district, from iva ʻthe name of the tree Salixʼ [18, P. 1018-1019]; [5, P. 1]. Kamishnaya – river (the left tributary of the Psel), it originates in the gullet of Kamish to the south-east of the village of  Kamishnoye of Belovsky district, from kamish – ʻcaneʼ. Klenovy brook (the right tributaryof the Gnilusha), it originates in the gullet of Klenovy of Timsky district, from klen – ʻthe name of the tree Acerpseudoplatanis, white sycamoreʼ [2, P. 9]. Osinovy – brook (the right tributary of the Brusovets), it originates in the plot of land of Osinovy of Ponirovsky district, from osina ʻthe name of the tree Populustremulusʼ [18, P. 717]; [5, P. 697]. In the region ʻaspen is everywhere: in forests and grovesʼ [15, P. 82]. Rakitnik – river (the right tributary of the Bely Nemed), it originates to the north-east of the outskirts of Zhelesnogorsky district, from rakitny, rakita – ʻthe tree Salix  fragilusʼ. Rogozets – brook (the left tributary of the Bistrets), it originates to the north-east of the village of Rogoztsy of Timsky district, from rogoza ʻa swampy plant Typhaʼ [5, P. 7]. Rogozna – river(the right tributary of the Seim) with two sources in Oktyabrsky district: one is to the north of the villages of Andrianovka and Sokolovka (Bolshaya Rogozna); the other is to the north of the village of Penjkovaya (Malaya or Srednaya Rogozna), from ancient-russian rogoz’ – ʻcane, bulrushʼ [18, P. 130]. Skorodny – brook (the right tributaryof the Sudzha), it originates in the plot of land of Skorodnoye, from dialectal skoroda – ʻfield, wild onion Allium odorumʼ [5, P. 204, 599]. The plant skoroda grows in water meadows; it is gathered in spring and used as food [15, P. 93]. Trosnitsa brook (the right tributary of the Prut), it originates to the south of the village of Konishevka of Konishevsky district, from trostnoy – ʻcanyʼ. Cane usually grows on the banks of rivers and lakes. Turochka river (the left tributary of the Kleven’), it originates in the gullet of Turkinskoy of Rilsky district, from dialectal turka or turcha – ʻthe plant Hottoniapalustrisʼ, ʻit is found in hollow standing or slow running waters and in swampsʼ [5, P. 444]. Khvoshchnya – brook (the left tributary of the Nestun’), it originates in the plot of land of Khvoshchevoy of Khomutovsky district, from khvoshch – ʻthe plant Equisetumʼ, formerly the shoots of khvoshch were widely used as food. Khrenovets – brook (the right tributary of the Malaya Kuritsa), it originates in the plot of land of Khrenovets to the north-west of the village of Ogarkovo of Kursky district, from khrenovy, khren – ʻthe name of the plant Cochlearia armoratiaʼ [5, P. 567]. Wild horseradish grows in water meadows. Cheremoshenka – brook (the right tributary of the Kharaseya), it originates in the plot of land of Cheremoshenets of Dmitrievsky district, from cheremkha or cheremsha – ʻa woody plant bird cherry tree Prunuspadusʼ [18, P. 1500]; [5, P. 592]; [4, P. 411]. Chechevizna – river ( the right tributary of the Seim), it originates to the north-east of the village of Berezutskaya of Lgovsky district, from dialectal chechevichka – a floating water plant Lemnaʼ [5, P. 126], from plenty of chechevichka, ryaska in the river, which sometimes covers brooks and rivers with slow running waters.

Therefore, the studying of the ancient hydronymy of Posemye allows to establish some principles in the naming of water bodies. In ancient times water bodies were very important in the life of people who used them widely for moving. The names of hydronyms preserve the evidence of the more ancient form of the language. They have great linguistic and extra linguistic information. The studying of semasiology and etymology of the hydronyms gives us an opportunity to come nearer in understanding the world model which people of different regions of Russia had.

Список литературы / References:
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Список литературы на английском / References in English:
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